Mukherjee earned her PhD in English (sociolinguistics) from Texas A&M University. In her scholarly work, she focuses on the intersections between national language policy and migrant groups in Malaysia. With Maya Khemlani David, she coedited National Language Planning and Language Shifts in Malaysian Minority Communities: Speaking in Many Tongues (2011). Mukherjee has taught language and linguistics in many places, including China, India, the Netherlands, the United States, Malaysia, and Singapore.
Mukherjee lives in Chicago, and has written for the Poetry Foundation's blog, Harriet.