Prose from Poetry Magazine

Dust and Stones

When the Batwa tribe in East Central Africa faces poverty and communal despair, it turns to poetry.

by Etienne Ndayishimiye

There is a certain romance to poetry of witness, poetry of prisoners and the oppressed, scrawled with fingernails into Styrofoam cups in Guantanamo. But that romance, in my experience, is just that. Most of my people, the Batwa, don’t engage in any way with the type of poetry published in this magazine—because when it comes down to poetry and food, survivors choose food.

Most Westerners are familiar with the Hutus and Tutsis as a result of the media blitz that followed the Rwandan genocide of the early nineties. Fewer are aware that a third tribe exists, mine. The Batwa are the original inhabitants of East Central Africa, first colonized by the agriculturalist Hutus at the turn of the first millennium, later by the cattle-herding Tutsis in the 1400s. Commonly called pygmies, a term we now reject as derogatory, we share ancestry with other indigenous populations of Africa, like the |xam of South Africa, who left behind a notable body of poetry, transcribed by their diligent friend Wilhelm Bleek, a Prussian linguist and pioneering ethnographer. Like the displaced |xam, we too are landless, forced to move at our government’s whim from squat to squat of unfertile land.

The Batwa are not a people without poetry—that is far from true—but we have been forced by the socioeconomic realities we face to articulate our poetry differently. The primary barrier between literary poetry and us is the problem of our overwhelming illiteracy, at an international high of at least 90%. Still, we are a people of singing and dancing, and we sing at every opportunity: while hunting, fishing, while selling our pottery at the market, and even more so at occasions calling for great ceremony, like weddings and births—especially twins! Our poetry is in that way much more communal, much more essential than any written verse, and we could not survive without it.

One of my favorite poems from childhood exemplifies our oral poetry. Political in the sense that it accurately reflects our forced engagement with poverty and social injustice, the poem is well known in our communities:

I want to sing to the memory of my beloved father
who gave me a beautiful, special cow
so I could walk slender-hipped like a handsome prince
before my unjust murder.

There are a few of us Batwa who have finished secondary school, and seven of our one hundred thousand have attended college. I was born in 1964 in Ruziba, a rural province of Burundi thirteen kilometers from Bujumbura, along Lake Tanganyika. I began school at age seven, but in my second year of primary school, in 1971, an ethnic crisis brought on a full civil war. During this time I fled to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where I lived alone as a refugee for three years. As a young child, I survived on the street, doing the small jobs I could find. During that time I clung to a particularly poetic song for refugees, often sung at churches in the original Kirundi:

Tamba Imana Yawe
Tamba Imana Yawe
Aho wabunda mu bisaka
Ninde yahagukuye

which in English goes:

Dance to your God
Dance to your God
Who else helps you
when you languish in the bushes?

Eventually I was able to return to my home country and reunite with my parents, four brothers, and two sisters.

Though I was able to return to primary school at that time, I faced intense discrimination from my Hutu and Tutsi classmates, who believed I belonged in the forest as a sort of sub-human being, hunting and gathering as my people did for thousands of years. Most Batwa children couldn’t bear the discrimination against them and dropped out; this continues today.

In sixth grade I found Christianity, and the poetry of the Bible has accompanied me ever since. Though most Burundian churches use the French Bible, I prefer the Kirundi, as its poetry resonates most resoundingly for me. I love the poetry of David, son of Jesse, especially his psalms of hope in the face of despair. I also am drawn to the Bible’s poetry of despair over injustice, passages like Psalm 38, Lamentations 2–4, and the book of Jeremiah, which articulates the prophet’s sadness because of the injustices of war that resulted in so many orphans.

Despite our communal despair, I still have faith in poetry, which I believe can make things happen, especially as an articulation of our deepest heartaches and longings, but also in a more direct way. Recently, a Burundian president instructed a provincial governor to give a Batwa community a parcel of their own land—the first step toward our alleviation of poverty. In a shrewd act the governor complied to the letter, by allotting us a barren plot of land, useless for agricultural activity. As a form of protest, the Batwa community gathered at a large party with the president in attendance, singing:

Thank you, Mr. President
for giving us a plot
of dust and stones.

In response to the poetry of illiterates, our president addressed the situation and came to our aid, helping us acquire productive land.

Originally Published: July 1, 2010

Translated by David Shook

COMMENTS (9)

On July 1, 2010 at 5:00pm Genie Strache/Mendocino wrote:
I loved reading about poetry in this part of Africa. My friend Otundo Ongala who is from Keyna, often dances for us at church fundraisers.

We had women visitors from another part of Africa who danced when they got tired as a way of reviving themselves, I guess. Instead of lying down, as we would do, they got up and danced. Even here, after a full day of classes in Baltmore and then evening speeches to Americans, they would dance.

It is inspiring for me, who write poetry in the oral tradition as well. And have been nearly homeless and medically malnourished when I went to college.

Its very good to know this kind of poetry. I guess we could call it the poetry of hard knocks.

You may edit this , if you like. I went on and on.

On July 4, 2010 at 12:52am bilal samuel muhamnad wrote:
again, it was a pleasure to see this on your website. it was even more of a pleasure to read it. keep up the good job. -bilal

On July 11, 2010 at 8:35am Connie McGhee wrote:
We, in first world countries, are clueless! May the God of mercy and justice bring abundant blessings to our brothers and sisters, who in soul-ways are much richer than we!

On July 27, 2010 at 3:58pm Eileen wrote:
Not only is this beautifully written, but it
tells an important story that might not
otherwise have been told, the story of a
people and their poetry.

It is a call to action against poverty and its
violence but also an argument for valuing
both oral and written artifacts.

This is truly an example of poetry put to
use.

On August 1, 2010 at 1:13pm Hannah wrote:
Really glad to see pieces like this in
Poetry...writers asking the hard
questions re: poetry. One candid
statement goes a long way towards
knocking us americans out of our
everyday complacency, e.g. "when it
comes down to poetry and food,
survivors choose food." We have the
luxury of separating the arts and
survival, here.

...also the Psalms, and Jeremiah, and
lamentations getting mentioned as real
poetry--there's something we don't see
as often as we should.

Awesome piece. Thanks for publishing
it, Poetry.

On August 28, 2010 at 7:31am Karen Lee wrote:
once again...someone..somewhere else inspires my heart and opens my eyes a little wider.

On August 28, 2010 at 10:09am Verna wrote:
Poetry is but a song in search of its music. No heart could be left untouched by the eloquence of this young Batwa. I sorrow at my own ignorance and the magnitude of my blessings in the light of a people who, with so little, can shake the very Earth with their words.

On August 28, 2010 at 11:23am Charles Perry wrote:
American Indians can certainly despair over government largesse. Some of our lands were not even suitable for burial plots.

On January 23, 2011 at 1:13pm Tin gilmour wrote:
I feel inspired by this piece and that the Batwa tribe would connect with Native Americans through there views of community, sufaring, and the constant struggle to make the lives of their people better. Interesting piece.

POST A COMMENT

Poetryfoundation.org welcomes comments that foster dialogue and cultivate an open community on the site. Comments on articles must be approved by the site moderators before they appear on the site. By submitting a comment, you give the Poetry Foundation the right to publish it. Please note: We require comments to include a name and e-mail address. Read more about our privacy policy.

Biography

Etienne Ndayishimiye is a Twa Parliamentarian in the East Central African nation of Burundi. Founder of UNIPROBA, a human rights nonprofit advocating for Batwa equality, he also serves on the board of Community for Burundi and mentors many young Twa leaders.

Continue reading this biography

Originally appeared in Poetry magazine.

This poem has learning resources.

This poem is good for children.

This poem has related video.

This poem has related audio.