Shock and Ahhh

Ringside at the 2007 National Poetry Slam Finals.

by Jeremy Richards
They call it “Poetry Slam Bingo.” Five squares across, five squares down, a free space in the middle. The bingo is not officially part of Individual Finals Night at the 2007 National Poetry Slam, but rather a makeshift distraction on handwritten cards, a heckle matrix passed along the back row. A poet calls for a revolution? Mark that square. Someone starts a performance by singing? Another square. A reference to the “third eye”? Yes, this is common enough in poetry slams to warrant a square.

About an hour into the competition, I’ve seen only a couple of bingos so far—fortunately, most of the work tonight falls beyond the predictable grid. The Paramount Theater in Austin, Texas, is packed, with half the crowd local spoken-word fans and the other half poets from previous bouts, all eager to hear the top 10 poets of the weeklong competition. Up front, five randomly picked judges flip their scorecards to reveal marks on a scale of 0 to 10, with the highest and lowest scores dropped to curb extremes; the highest possible score is 30. They’re asked to consider content, performance, and originality, and to ignore the other thousand people in the audience, who boo and heckle when the numbers don’t play out the way they want, and stand in throngs chanting “Ten! Ten! Ten!” in an attempt to influence the scores.

Then there’s the bingo-playing snark of the Statler and Waldorf crowd, slinging critiques between mouthfuls of popcorn and gin rickeys. These are the veterans, the seventh-year stringers who have heard every slam cliché often enough to sing along. But in between the chanting hype and the jaded few, there’s also the middle-school English teacher who says she’s never heard poetry like this, the retired engineer who thought the evening would be a boring recital, and the 21-year-old busboy in the faded T-shirt who started scribbling rhymes in a notebook just a few years ago.

Tonight, that kid is on stage. Danny Sherrard describes himself as “so skinny that when I inhale you could take a drumstick and play my ribcage like a xylophone.” Halfway through the second round, Sherrard stands with a loose posture and natural grin, full of scruffy sincerity and lines that unravel abstractions of Sufism and pumpkins and Windex rainbows. It’s a cleansing energy. The audience roars.

Soon they’re heading into the final round, and emcee Mike Henry announces the last four poets standing: Alvin Lau (Chicago), Danny Sherrard (Seattle), Shannon Leigh (Atlanta), and Christopher Michael (Killeen, Texas). The judges wipe out the points for a clean slate. For these poets, this round determines the win.

As the first in rotation, Alvin Lau knows he has to start strong. He takes a primed stance, steady in jeans, T-shirt, and a hooded sweatshirt with the sleeves rolled up. “For the break-dancers,” he announces, and the crowd bubbles with expectant laughter. Suddenly, Lau begins his tribute to the hip-hop dance style:
you make breakdancing a mystic art

at three a.m. west side
public park practice sessions
an abandoned YMCA turns
into Baba Yaga’s hut

crews sling bones of fallen battle cats
like blood and dice

you fought for Helen’s hand on Troy’s shore
and Achilles fell to a shot of your style
a flaming arrow illuminating the skyline
As he delivers these lines, Lau pops and locks, performing a series of arm, hand, and wrist movements that make him look like an animatronic dancer doing tai chi, all set to the rhythm and sense of the spoken lines. Meanwhile, the sign-language translator at stage right gestures furiously to keep up, as if moving in a dance of her own. Naturally, this pushes toward sensory overload. But a rush of language, image, and gesture is common in slam, even if you can catch only a metaphor here, an allusion there. In the snap judgment of the scoring, Lau receives a 29.4 out of 30.

Danny Sherrard returns to the stage next, and again his lanky charm carries him halfway to our hearts before he even speaks. Though he pegs a “bingo” cliché (reference to a third eye: check), he also offers lines like “she wears clothes made of concrete / and they’re so tight her body bleeds starlight” as if they have just occurred to him, while his rapid delivery of “earthquakes of the spirit or subway trains on fire” slows down just enough to stick the landing. He takes a perfect 30.

A 30 is rare, even with “score creep” (a phenomenon in which the judges give higher numbers in response to the increasing energy of the night and the audience’s insistence on higher scores), so at this point the competition appears to be for second place. But as Shannon Leigh begins, I’m astonished at what I hear. Leigh is 19 years old, wide-eyed, and unassuming—until she steps in front of the microphone, although a flash of the tattoo on her forearm or the sudden resolve in her posture might give it away. Early on, her poem is darker, more twisted, and more novel than I expect: “let me be the fire with you, the glossolalia / of a forgotten god, claw tongues out of me, lay me down / like an epileptic on the road to Damascus.” The thrust then becomes an anaphora of sexual rhythm:
fuck me like I was possessed, fuck an exorcism in me
fuck me like I’ve sold my body for money, like I
have killed my child and wept for joy, fuck me
on a bed made of your skin
I will fuck you like it will kill me

What could be disturbing on the page sounds more like a raw and inexorable ritual in performance, and the crowd is happy to cheer her on. The judges give Leigh a 29.8.
Again, one of the youngest slam poets has proven the power of the unexpected. While neither Sherrard nor Leigh have reached the height of their craft, both pack the surprise of short, thin white kids with tsunamis in their back pockets. The shock of the preternatural is half its force.

We see a contrasting force in Christopher Michael, a tall Texan wearing a T-shirt tucked behind a medallion-sized belt buckle. Michael caps the third round with a piece more direct, more outward and outraged than the self-folding verse of the previous two poets. “Soulja to Soldier” is a consciously political poem. It’s built on familiar indictments of the Iraq war, the Bush administration, and social complicity, but also of those who blindly disrespect the armed services without direct knowledge—and this experience is what sets Michael apart from other political poets. The poem speaks of his 12 years in the military and of witnessing the death of a fellow soldier. After a flurry of invective, in its last lines the poem turns into a tribute to the troops and a solid salute.

It’s impossible to reject this sentiment, even as the more cynical critics mark “Iraq” and “Bush bashing” on their bingo cards. As the poet and critic Susan Somers-Willett has suggested, it’s not simply the content or even the orality of slam that carries it, but the reception. Without editors, without gatekeepers, the audience is all. The room floods with cheers, and the judges deliver another perfect score. Another 30. A tie.

Shortly, Mike Henry steps out and explains the tiebreaker: Danny Sherrard and Christopher Michael will each do one more poem, but instead of numerical scores, the judges will have to wait for both poets to perform and then pick one or the other. Eager applause mingles with a few cries of frustration (the stakes are high, as is the tension). After a quick coin flip, Michael steps out and performs his last poem, “mystory,” a criticism of ethnocentric history and a tribute to the unheralded African American contributions to science, literature, and culture. Sherrard, intentionally or not, then echoes the theme of institutional education as a corrosive power. He smiles through lines about a kindergarten experience: a time when he drew God with “fountain fingers, mountains, and rainbow tears,” but suffered the wrath of a literal-minded teacher who crumpled his vision and threw it away. Even if the poem’s defense of creative freedom sounds mawkish in theory, Sherrard’s charm carries it, pushes past any crossed-arm reservations and leaves the audience gushing. “I just want to hug him,” says a girl in the row behind me.

But for the judges, the call is hardly clear. One could argue for hours that apples are shiny and red, while oranges are bumpy and, you know, orange, but ultimately they have to choose between two very different poets. This event, more than a typical poetry reading, makes the case for a live review more than a literary review. Even the verse savant who could clutch these lines out of thin air and envision them as lineated text would be hard-pressed to mull them over, to make a clear judgment before the crowd starts shouting. From the stadium seats, any spontaneous appraisal is impressionistic, all gut and adrenaline.

Without deliberation, Mike Henry asks the judges to raise their score tablets on the count of three if they vote for Christopher Michael. Two tablets go up. For Danny Sherrard? Three tablets. Sherrard, a first-year competitor and the youngest to ever hold the title, takes the trophy and the standing ovation. But he also takes on a bewildering rock star status, an unending series of hugs from strangers, a stack of sweaty business cards, and questions about his agent—does he have an agent? And everyone wants to know if he can come to their town next, their club or school or stadium, if he’s interested in a tour, if he’ll just take the card, take the card and think about it, as he’s adored and pawed at, stumbling in the vertigo of sudden fame.
Originally Published: November 20, 2007


On November 24, 2007 at 1:22pm Todd Watson wrote:
What a beautiful story. I am a journalism grad student at New York University and I'm working on a long project about poetry in mainstream American culture, where it exists and how. I'm focusing on New York City and the poets there that are trying to keep it relevant. My blog is and my email in If anyone has advice or suggestions about how I can best cover this subject, I'm all ears. I'm particularly interested in poetry's absence in mainstream media. Though it is no longer, it once was a regular feature of Sunday newspapers across the country. Does anyone know alot about this?

On November 27, 2007 at 10:31am xavier wrote:
this poem was exquisite

On November 27, 2007 at 10:41am anthony wrote:
lots of foul language. thats a no, no

On November 27, 2007 at 10:43am arman wrote:
this poem brought tears to my eyes

On November 27, 2007 at 10:47am nick wrote:
i loved this poem god bless you

On November 27, 2007 at 12:57pm Jeremy Richards wrote:
Todd: Actually, Soft Skull Press just published "Words in Your Face: A Guided Tour Through Twenty Years of the New York City Poetry Slam" by Cristin O'Keefe Aptowicz. That will be a great place to start.

On November 27, 2007 at 6:13pm Robert Schwab wrote:
Thanks for this report.

I'm not sure what poems nick, arman, anthony and xavier are writing about since no full poem was included, but the report, I thought, brought you to the Paramount and allowed you to hear the audience reaction.

I, for one, am happy to see Poetry covering Slam, although I don't write it myself. I think it, nevertheless, remains a well-established piece of our nation's poetry, and should be recognized and covered as such.

I would like to see a few more pieces on the history of Slam as it rolled out and I missed it over the past 15 years.

On December 3, 2007 at 9:34pm Alan Simmons wrote:
A well writ article by Richards. Its seems the case that poetry slams or competitions are not for deep introspective poetry but for crowd and critic pleasing, no? What did Frank Lloyd Wright have to say about architectural competitions? There were some quotes that seemed clever. Clever is good, but how far can that alone take us? How easy it is for "authority figures" to establish accepted or unaccepted paradigms in art? Could poetry be the most vulnerable art form to this process? Does it not take time to critique a great poem?

On December 12, 2007 at 3:27pm Leo Burns wrote:
This is an interesting look at the "slam." It seems that the slam itself is closely related to hip-hop culture which itself has thoroughly run its digestive course in our culture... and unfortunely poetry slams which represent a more positive side to this have spurned nothing more than a contest of political-flare... its not necessarily poetry that suffers (though only in the obscuring of the definition of "poetry" which is nothing new)... its the discernment between rappers and real poets that is complicated. In poetry slams, there is often an extrospective emphasis wherein the wrapper outshines the product and in the end its shelf-life is short-lived and nobody reads the labels anyway to understand what they are putting into themselves.

Poetry-slams? (Fire and brimstone with no heat?) Fast-food for thought?

On June 7, 2008 at 4:04pm Sam Chaplin wrote:
Having stumbled across Alvin Lau and Danny Sherrard recently through youtube, I have searched for more recordings from the NPS. They seem to be quite few and far between and ranging from opening rounds of years ago all the way to the finals described here.

Is there a source where you can get a dvd or even just a stream of a whole show? Slam from the NPS is usually well worth watching, I'd love to see more, if only it was easier to find!

On April 20, 2012 at 8:22am sevne wrote:
really was sad but the language really need to bring down but very good story and im sorry to hear that

POST A COMMENT welcomes comments that foster dialogue and cultivate an open community on the site. Comments on articles must be approved by the site moderators before they appear on the site. By submitting a comment, you give the Poetry Foundation the right to publish it. Please note: We require comments to include a name and e-mail address. Read more about our privacy policy.



Jeremy Richards is a poet and journalist living in Seattle. His work has appeared widely, including in The Spoken Word Revolution Redux, McSweeney's, Rattle, The Morning News, and on National Public Radio's Morning Edition, Day to Day, and All Things Considered. "Nietzsche! The Musical," for which he wrote the book and lyrics, premiered at Seattle's Market Theater in June 2010. Richards holds a BA from Gonzaga University and an . . .

Continue reading this biography

Originally appeared in Poetry magazine.

This poem has learning resources.

This poem is good for children.

This poem has related video.

This poem has related audio.