Charles Bukowski

1920–1994
Charles BukowskiLinda Bukowski

Charles Bukowski was a prolific underground writer who used his his poetry and prose to depict the depravity of urban life and the downtrodden in American society. A cult hero, Bukowski relied on experience, emotion, and imagination in his work, using direct language and violent and sexual imagery. While some critics found his style offensive, others claimed that Bukowski satirized the machismo attitude through his routine use of sex, alcohol abuse, and violence. “Without trying to make himself look good, much less heroic, Bukowski writes with a nothing-to-lose truthfulness which sets him apart from most other ‘autobiographical’ novelists and poets,” commented Stephen Kessler in the San Francisco Review of Books, adding: “Firmly in the American tradition of the maverick, Bukowski writes with no apologies from the frayed edge of society.” Michael Lally in Village Voice maintained that “Bukowski is…a phenomenon. He has established himself as a writer with a consistent and insistent style based on what he projects as his ‘personality,’ the result of hard, intense living.”

Born in Germany, Bukowski was brought to the United States at the age of two. His father believed in firm discipline and often beat Bukowski for the smallest offenses, abuse Bukowski detailed in his autobiographical coming-of-age novel, Ham on Rye (1982). A slight child, Bukowski was also bullied by boys his own age, and was frequently rejected by girls because of his bad complexion. “When Bukowski was 13,” wrote Ciotti, “one of [his friends] invited him to his father’s wine cellar and served him his first drink of alcohol: ‘It was magic,’ Bukowski would later write. ‘Why hadn’t someone told me?’”

In 1939, Bukowski began attending Los Angeles City College, dropping out at the beginning of World War II and moving to New York to become a writer. The next few years were spent writing and traveling and collecting numerous rejection slips. By 1946 Bukowski had decided to give up his writing aspirations, embarking on a ten-year binge that took him across the country. Ending up near death in Los Angeles, Bukowski started writing again, though he would continue to drink and cultivate his reputation as a hard-living poet. He did not begin his professional writing career until the age of thirty-five, and like other contemporaries, began by publishing in underground newspapers, especially in local papers such as Open City and the L.A. Free Press. “Published by small, underground presses and ephemeral mimeographed little magazines,” described Jay Dougherty in Contemporary Novelists, “Bukowski has gained popularity, in a sense, through word of mouth.” “The main character in his poems and short stories, which are largely autobiographical, is usually a down-and-out writer [Henry Chinaski] who spends his time working at marginal jobs (and getting fired from them), getting drunk and making love with a succession of bimbos and floozies,” related Ciotti. “Otherwise, he hangs out with fellow losers—whores, pimps, alcoholics, drifters.”

Bukowski wrote more than forty books of poetry, prose and novels. Flower, Fist, and Bestial Wail (1959), Bukowski’s first book of poetry, covers the major interests and themes that occupy many of his works, especially “the sense of a desolate, abandoned world,” R. R. Cuscaden pointed out in the Outsider. In addition to desolation, Bukowski’s free verse tackles the absurdities of life, especially in relation to death. “Bukowski’s world, scored and grooved by the impersonal instruments of civilized industrial society, by 20th-century knowledge and experience, remains essentially a world in which meditation and analysis have little part,” asserted John William Corrington in Northwest Review. The subject matter of this world is drinking, sex, gambling, and music; the Bukowski style, however, is “a crisp, hard voice; an excellent ear and eye for measuring out the lengths of lines; and an avoidance of metaphor where a lively anecdote will do the same dramatic work,” maintained Ken Tucker in the Village Voice. It Catches My Heart in Its Hands (1963) collects poetry written between the years of 1955 and 1963. “Individual poems merge to form together a body of work unrivalled in kind and very nearly unequalled in quality by Bukowski’s contemporaries,” stated Corrington. Over the course of thirty years, Bukowski published an astonishing number of collections of poetry and prose, as well as many novels. Kenneth Rexroth asserted in the New York Times Book Review that Bukowski “belongs in the small company of poets of real, not literary, alienation.”

Though Bukowski died of leukemia in 1994, his posthumous career has proven to be just as prolific. Due in part to the unique relationship he had with his publisher, John Martin, the editor of Black Sparrow Books, Bukowski’s massive output continues to make an appearance in book form every other year or so. Posthumous works, such as The People Look Like Flowers At Last: New Poems (2008), address subjects similar to those in his first collection. Reviewing the posthumously-published Slouching Toward Nirvana (2005) for the New Yorker, critic Adam Kirsch related an interview in which Bukowski described his readership as “the defeated, the demented and the damned,” adding that the “mixture of boast and complaint exactly mirrors the coyness of Bukowski’s poetry, which is at once misanthropic and comradely, aggressively vulgar and clandestinely sensitive.” Kirsch continued:”Bukowski’s poems are best appreciated not as individual verbal artifacts but as ongoing installments in the tale of his true adventures, like a comic book or a movie serial. They are strongly narrative, drawing from an endless supply of anecdotes that typically involve a bar, a skid-row hotel, a horse race, a girlfriend, or any permutation thereof. Bukowski’s free verse is really a series of declarative sentences broken up into a long, narrow column, the short lines giving an impression of speed and terseness even when the language is sentimental or clichéd.” Of the volume—Bukowski’s ninth posthumous collection—Kirsch said “these ‘new poems’ are just like the old poems, perhaps a shade more repetitive, but not immediately recognizable as second-rate work or leftovers,” accounting, perhaps, for Bukowski’s continued success in the literary marketplace.

Similar to his poetry in subject matter, Bukowski’s short stories also deal with sex, violence, and the absurdities of life. In his first collection of short stories, Erections, Ejaculations, Exhibitions, and General Tales of Ordinary Madness (1972), Bukowski “writes as an unregenerate lowbrow contemptuous of our claims to superior being,” stated Thomas R. Edwards in the New York Review of Books. The protagonists in the stories in Hot Water Music (1983) live in cheap hotels and are often struggling underground writers, similar to Bukowski himself. Bukowski’s main autobiographical figure in these stories, as well as in many of his novels, is Henry Chinaski, a thinly veiled alter-ego (Bukowski’s full name was Henry Charles Bukowski, Jr. and his friends knew him as Hank). “Lives of quiet desperation explode in apparently random and unmotivated acts of bizarre violence,” described Michael F. Harper in his Los Angeles Times Book Review piece on the book. Bukowski continued his examination of “broken people” in such novels as Post Office (1971) and Ham on Rye (1982), giving both a heavily autobiographical tilt. Ben Reuven, writing in the Los Angeles Times Book Review, described the “first-person reminiscences” in Ham on Rye as “taut, vivid, intense, sometimes poignant, [and] often hilarious.” Continuing the examination of his younger years, Bukowski wrote the screenplay for the movie Barfly, released in 1987 and starring Mickey Rourke. The movie focuses on three days in the life of Bukowski at the age of twenty-four. Michael Wilmington concluded in the Los Angeles Times: “Whatever its flaws, [Barfly] does something more films should do: It opens up territory, opens up a human being. The worst of it has the edge of coughed-up whimsy and barroom bragging. But the best has the shock of truth and the harsh sweet kiss of dreams.” Bukowski’s experiences with the making of Barfly became the basis of his novel Hollywood (1989), which traces the humorous, convoluted path from script to screen of a movie called Barfly written by the novel’s protagonist, Henry Chinaski, now an old man.

Bukowski’s work has been collected and re-collected in various readers, anthologies, and selected works. Run with the Hunted (1993) is an anthology of Bukowski’s stories and poetry, placed chronologically in the periods in which they were written, not published. It provides a solid overview of Bukowski’s work and—given its autobiographical nature—his life. Benjamin Segedin, writing in Booklist, wrote of Bukowski’s works: “Less celebrations of self-destruction than honest self-portraiture, they reveal him in all his ugliness as an outsider on the verge of respectability.” Segedin continued, “Here is a collection of blunt, hard-edged angry stuff as uncompromising as you will ever hope to find.” Bukowski’s previously unpublished work, introduced posthumously by Black Sparrow Press in Betting on the Muse: Poems & Stories (1996), gives a wider overview of the verse that made him, according to a Publishers Weekly contributor, the “original take-no-prisoners poet.” Ray Olson, writing for Booklist, found his stories and poems to be “effortlessly, magnetically readable, especially if you are susceptible to their bargain-basement existentialist charm.”

Bukowski’s life via his letters is chronicled in both Screams from the Balcony: Selected Letters 1960-1970 (1994) and Reach for the Sun: Selected Letters, 1978-1994 (2002), which covered the last years of the poet’s life. In letters to his publishers, editors, friends, and fellow poets, Bukowski railed against critics, praised the writers who first inspired him, and wrote a great deal about three of his favorite subjects: drinking, women, and the racetrack. “Above all, however, they reveal a man dedicated to his craft,” noted William Gargan in Library Journal. But perhaps the most intimate look into Bukowski’s life is provided by The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship (2002), a collection of journal entries from the poet’s last years. It begins with his usual celebrations and ruminations on gambling, women, and drinking, but takes on “tragic overtones” as the writer comes to terms with his diagnosis of leukemia, reported Gerald Locklin in Review of Contemporary Fiction. “These reflections approaching endgame reveal the complex humanity of a too-often caricatured figure who beat seemingly prohibitive odds to achieve the destiny he came to embrace as a world-class writer of uncompromising novels, stories, and poems.”

 

[Updated 2010]

Career

Worked as an unskilled laborer, beginning 1941, in various positions, including dishwasher, truck driver and loader, mail carrier, guard, gas station attendant, stock boy, warehouse worker, shipping clerk, post office clerk, parking lot attendant, Red Cross orderly, and elevator operator; also worked in dog biscuit factory, slaughterhouse, cake and cookie factory, and hung posters in New York subways. Former editor of Harlequin and Laugh Literary and Man the Humping Guns; columnist ( "Notes of a Dirty Old Man"), Open City and L.A. Free Press.

Bibliography

POETRY

  • Flower, Fist, and Bestial Wail, Hearse Press, 1959.
  • Longshot Poems for Broke Players, 7 Poets Press, 1961.
  • Run with the Hunted, Midwest Poetry Chapbooks, 1962.
  • Poems and Drawings, EPOS, 1962.
  • It Catches My Heart in Its Hands: New and Selected Poems, 1955-1963, Loujon Press (New Orleans, LA), 1963.
  • Grip the Walls, Wormwood Review Press, 1964.
  • Cold Dogs in the Courtyard, Literary Times, 1965.
  • Crucifix in a Deathhand: New Poems, 1963-1965, Loujon Press (New Orleans, LA), 1965.
  • The Genius of the Crowd, 7 Flowers Press, 1966.
  • True Story, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1966.
  • On Going out to Get the Mail, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1966.
  • To Kiss the Worms Goodnight, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1966.
  • The Girls, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1966.
  • The Flower Lover, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1966.
  • Night's Work, Wormwood Review Press, 1966.
  • 2 by Bukowski, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1967.
  • The Curtains Are Waving, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1967.
  • At Terror Street and Agony Way, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1968.
  • Poems Written before Jumping out of an 8-Story Window, Litmus (Salt Lake City, UT), 1968.
  • If We Take... , Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1969.
  • The Days Run away like Wild Horses over the Hills, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1969, reprinted, 1993.
  • Another Academy, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1970.
  • Fire Station, Capricorn Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1970.
  • Mockingbird, Wish Me Luck, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1972.
  • Me and Your Sometimes Love Poems, Kisskill Press (Los Angeles, CA), 1972.
  • While the Music Played, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1973.
  • Love Poems to Marina, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1973.
  • Burning in Water, Drowning in Flame: Selected Poems, 1955-1973, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1974.
  • Chilled Green, Alternative Press, 1975.
  • Africa, Paris, Greece, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1975.
  • Weather Report, Pomegranate Press, 1975.
  • Winter, No Mountain, 1975.
  • Tough Company, bound with The Last Poem by Diane Wakoski, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1975.
  • Scarlet, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1976.
  • Maybe Tomorrow, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1977.
  • Love Is a Dog from Hell: Poems, 1974-1977, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1977.
  • Legs, Hips, and Behind, Wormwood Review Press, 1979.
  • Play the Piano Drunk like a Percussion Instrument until the Fingers Begin to Bleed a Bit, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1979.
  • A Love Poem, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1979.
  • Dangling in the Tournefortia, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1981; republished, Ecco Press (New York, NY), 2002.
  • The Last Generation, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1982.
  • Sparks, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1983.
  • War All the Time: Poems 1981-1984, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1984.
  • The Roominghouse Madrigals: Early Selected Poems, 1946-1966, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1988.
  • Beauti-ful and Other Long Poems, Wormwood Books and Magazines, 1988.
  • People Poems: 1982-1991, Wormwood Books and Magazines, 1991.
  • The Last Night of the Earth Poems, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1992.
  • (With Kenneth Price), Heat Wave, Black Sparrow Graphic Arts (Santa Rosa, CA), 1995.
  • Bone Palace Ballet: New Poems, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1997.
  • The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1998.
  • What Matters Most Is How Well You Walk through the Fire, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1999.
  • Open All Night: New Poems, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 2000.
  • The Night Torn Mad with Footsteps, Ecco (New York, NY), 2002.
  • Sifting Through the Madness for the Line, the Word, the Way, Ecco (New York, NY), 2004.
  • Slouching Toward Nirvana, Ecco (New York, NY), 2005.
  • Come On In! Ecco (New York, NY), 2006.
  • The People Look like Flowers at Last, Ecco (New York, NY), 2007.
  • The Pleasures of the Damned: Poems 1951-1993, Ecco (New York, NY), 2007.
  • The Continual Condition, Ecco (New York, NY), 2009.
  • Absence of the Hero, City Lights Publishers (San Francisco, CA), 2010.

NOVELS

  • Post Office, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1971.
  • Factotum, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1975.
  • Women, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1978.
  • Ham on Rye, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1982.
  • Horsemeat, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1982.
  • Hollywood, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1989.
  • Pulp, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1994.

SHORT STORIES

  • Notes of a Dirty Old Man, Essex House (North Hollywood, CA), 1969, 2nd edition, 1973.
  • Erections, Ejaculations, Exhibitions, and General Tales of Ordinary Madness, City Lights (San Francisco, CA), 1972, abridged edition published as Life and Death in the Charity Ward, London Magazine Editions (London, England), 1974, selections edited by Gail Ghiarello published as Tales of Ordinary Madness and The Most Beautiful Woman in Town, and Other Stories, two volumes, City Lights (San Francisco, CA), 1983.
  • South of No North: Stories of the Buried Life, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1973.
  • Bring Me Your Love, illustrated by R. Crumb, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1983.
  • Hot Water Music, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1983.
  • There's No Business, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1984.

OTHER

  • Confessions of a Man Insane Enough to Live with Beasts, Mimeo Press (Bensenville, IL), 1966.
  • All the Assholes in the World and Mine, Open Skull Press (Bensenville, IL), 1966.
  • A Bukowski Sampler, edited by Douglas Blazek, Quixote Press, 1969.
  • (Compiler, with Neeli Cherry and Paul Vangelisti) Anthology of L.A. Poets, Laugh Literary, 1972.
  • Art, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1977.
  • What They Want, Neville, 1977.
  • We'll Take Them, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1978.
  • You Kissed Lilly, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1978.
  • Shakespeare Never Did This, City Lights, 1979.
  • (With Al Purdy) The Bukowski/Purdy Letters: A Decade of Dialogue, 1964-1974, edited by Seamus Cooney, Paget Press (Ontario), 1983.
  • Under the Influence: A Charles Bukowski Checklist, Water Row Press, 1984.
  • You Get so Alone at Times That It Just Makes Sense, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1986.
  • (Author of preface) Jack Micheline, River of Red Wine, Water Row Press, 1986.
  • Barfly (screenplay based on Bukowski's life), Cannon Group, 1987, published as The Movie "Barfly": An Original Screenplay by Charles Bukowski for a Film by Barbet Schroeder, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1987.
  • A Visitor Complains of My Disenfranchise, limited edition, Illuminati, 1987.
  • Bukowski at Bellevue (video cassette of poetry reading; broadcast on EZTV, West Hollywood, CA, 1988), Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1988.
  • Septuagenarian Stew: Stories and Poems, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1990.
  • (Author of preface) John Fante, Ask the Dust, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1993.
  • Run with the Hunted: A Charles Bukowski Reader, edited by John Martin, Harper Collins, 1993.
  • Screams from the Balcony: Selected Letters 1960-1970 (autobiography), Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1994.
  • (Author of foreword) Steve Richmond, Hitler Painted Roses, Sun Dog Press, 1994.
  • Confession of a Coward, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1995.
  • (Editor) Seamus Cooney Living on Luck: Selected Letters, 1960s-1970s, Volume 2, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1995.
  • Betting on the Muse: Poems & Stories, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1996.
  • (With Fernada Pivano) Charles Bukowski: Laughing with the Gods (interview), Sun Dog Press (Northville, MI), 2000.
  • Beerspit Night and Cursing: The Correspondence of Charles Bukowski and Sheri Martinelli, 1960-1967, edited by Steven Moore, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 2001.
  • Reach for the Sun Vol. 3, Ecco (New York, NY), 2002.
  • The Captain is Out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, Ecco (New York, NY), 2002.

Also author of the short story "The Copulating Mermaids of Venice, California." Work represented in anthologies, including Penguin Modern Poets 13, 1969, Six Poets, 1979, and Notes from the Underground, edited by John Bryan. Also author of a one-hour documentary film, produced by KCET public television, Los Angeles. A collection of Bukowski's papers is housed at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Further Reading

BOOKS

  • Brewer, Gay, Charles Bukowski, Twayne (New York, NY), 1997.
  • Cherkovski, Neeli, Bukowski: A Life, Steerforth Press (South Royalton, VT), 1997.
  • Christy, Jim, The Buk Book: Musings on Charles Bukowski, ECW Press (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1997.
  • Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 2, 1974, Volume 5, 1976, Volume 9, 1978, Volume 41, 1987, Volume 82, 1994.
  • Contemporary Novelists, 4th edition, edited by D. L. Kirkpatrick, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1986.
  • Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 5: American Poets since World War II, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1980.
  • Dorbin, Sanford, A Bibliography of Charles Bukowski, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1969.
  • Fox, Hugh, Charles Bukowski: A Critical and Bibliographical Study, Abyss Publications, 1969.
  • Harrison, Russell,Against the American Dream: Essays on Charles Bukowski, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1994.
  • Richmond, Steve, Spinning off Bukowski, Sun Dog Press (Northville, MI), 1996.
  • Sherman, Jory, Bukowski: Friendship, Fame, and Bestial Myth, Blue Horse Press, 1982.
  • Sounes, Howard, Locked in the Arms of a Crazy Life, Grove Press, 2000.
  • Weddle, Jeff, Bohemian New Orleans: The Story of the Outsider and Loujon Press, University Press of Mississippi (Jackson, MS), 2007.
  • Weinberg, Jeffrey, editor, A Charles Bukowski Checklist, Water Row Press, 1987.

PERIODICALS

  • Booklist, February 15, 1993, p. 1010; January 15, 1994, p. 893; May 15, 1996, p. 1563; May 15, 1998, Mike Tribby, review of The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, p. 1587; December 15, 1999, review of What Matters Most Is How Well You Walk through the Fire, p. 752; December 1, 2000, Ray Olson, review of Open All Night: New Poems, p. 689.
  • Bookwatch, July, 1998, review of The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, p. 1.
  • Chicago Tribune, July 18, 1989; August 28, 1994, p. 6.
  • Globe and Mail (Toronto), January 21, 1984.
  • Kliatt, January, 1998, review of Bone Palace Ballet, p. 21.
  • Library Journal, July, 1999, William Gargan, review of Reach for the Sun: Selected Letters, 1978-1994, p. 89.
  • Los Angeles Magazine, June, 1994, p. 76.
  • Los Angeles Times, March 17, 1983; November 3, 1987; November 5, 1987; September 23, 1988.
  • Los Angeles Times Book Review, October 3, 1982, p. 6; August 28, 1983, p. 6; December 11, 1983, p. 2; March 17, 1985, p. 4; June 4, 1989, p. 4; October 30, 1994, p. 11.
  • Los Angeles Times Magazine, March 22, 1987, pp. 12-14, 17-19, 23.
  • New Statesman & Society, June 17, 1994, p. 37.
  • Newsweek, October 26, 1987, p. 86.
  • New York Review of Books, October 5, 1972, pp. 21-23.
  • New York Times, September 30, 1987.
  • New York Times Book Review, July 5, 1964, p. 5; January 17, 1982, pp. 13, 16; June 11, 1989, p. 11; November 25, 1990, p. 19; June 5, 1994, p. 50; December 26, 1999, review of What Matters Most Is How Well You Walk through the Fire, p. 16; January 7, 2001, Kera Bolonik, review of Open All Night: New Poems, p. 18.
  • Northwest Review, fall, 1963, pp. 123-129.
  • Outsider, spring, 1963, pp. 62-65.
  • People, November 16, 1987, pp. 79-80.
  • Poetry, July, 1964, pp. 258-264.
  • Publishers Weekly, March 29, 1993, p. 34; December 20, 1993, p. 62; April 29, 1996, p. 66; April 20, 1998, review of The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, p. 60; December 6, 1999, review of What Matters Most Is How Well You Walk through the Fire, p. 74; November 20, 2000, review of Open All Night: New Poems, p. 65.
  • Review of Contemporary Fiction, fall, 1985, pp. 56-59; fall, 1998, Gerald Locklin, review of The Captain Is out to Lunch and the Sailors Have Taken over the Ship, p. 237.
  • San Francisco Review of Books, January-February, 1983, p. 11.
  • Spectator, November 30, 1974.
  • Times (London), March 3, 1988; July 8, 1989.
  • Times Literary Supplement, April 5, 1974, p. 375; June 20, 1980, p. 706; September 4, 1981, p. 1000; November 12, 1982, p. 1251; December 3, 1982, p. 1344; May 4, 1984, p. 486; August 11, 1989, p. 877; September 7, 1990, p. 956.
  • Village Voice, March 26, 1964, pp. 11-12; February 20, 1978, pp. 89-90; March 23, 1982, pp. 42-43.
  • Washington Post, November 20, 1987.
  • Washington Post Book World, July 14, 1994, p. 2.

OTHER

  • Books and Writers, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ (February 20, 2001), "Charles Bukowski."
  • Bukowski: Born Into This (documentary), Magnolia Pictures, 2004.
  • The Outsiders of New Orleans: Loujon Press (documentary), Wayne Ewing, 2007.

OBITUARIES:

PERIODICALS

  • Chicago Tribune, March 11, 1994, p. 12.
  • Entertainment Weekly, March 25, 1994, p. 49.
  • Facts on File, March 17, 1994, p. 196.
  • Los Angeles Times, March 10, 1994, p. 1, 24.
  • New York Times, March 11, 1994, p. B9.
  • Time, March 21, 1994, p. 26.
  • Times (London), March 11, 1994, p. 23.
  • Variety, March 14, 1994, p. 67.
  • Washington Post, March 11, 1994, p. B5.

Articles About CHARLES BUKOWSKI

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POET’S REGION U.S., Western

LIFE SPAN 1920–1994

Charles Bukowski

Biography

Charles Bukowski was a prolific underground writer who used his his poetry and prose to depict the depravity of urban life and the downtrodden in American society. A cult hero, Bukowski relied on experience, emotion, and imagination in his work, using direct language and violent and sexual imagery. While some critics found his style offensive, others claimed that Bukowski satirized the machismo attitude through his routine use . . .

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