Leslie Marmon Silko
Silko attended school on the Laguna reservation until the fifth grade, when she transferred to Catholic school in distant Albuquerque. Prohibited from speaking the Keresan language of her grandmother and aunts, Silko nonetheless excelled academically and went on to receive her bachelor’s degree from the University of New Mexico in 1969. That same year her first story, “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” was published. She briefly enrolled in law school, but left to pursue her writing career in 1971 when she was awarded a National Endowment for the Arts Discovery Grant. Silko won many major awards throughout the 1970s and ‘80s, including a Pushcart Prize for Poetry and the MacArthur “Genius” Award. This last award allowed Silko to quit her teaching job at the University of Arizon-Tucson and devote herself full-time to writing. In 1988 she received the New Mexico Endowment for the Humanities “Living Cultural Treasure” Award. She is also well-known for her friendship with the poet James Wright. Their correspondence was chronicled in the book With the Delicacy and Strength of Lace: Letters Between Leslie Marmon Silko and James Wright (1986), which won the Boston Globe Book Prize for non-fiction.
Though perhaps best known as a novelist, Silko is also an accomplished poet. She began writing poetry based on traditional stories and legends she learned from her family. For example, her poem "Bear Story" uses characters from Laguna and other Southwestern Indian stories to retell an ancient metamorphosis myth about humans and bears. Her poems highlight many of the same themes found in her prose, including the Native Americans' non-Western sense of time, the strength of women, and the need for political and social change. Silko self-published her multi-genre book Sacred Water: Narratives and Pictures (1993) under her own imprint (Flood Plain Press). As a result, she was able to experiment with the text's physical form and the use of handmade materials. Her collection of essays Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today (1996) focuses on the spirit and voice of Native Americans. Silko provides nuanced explorations of the literature, language, and heritage of Native Americans; she also includes essays on subjects ranging from the wisdom of her ancestors to the racist treatment of Native Americans.
A highly regarded novelist, Silko received wide and substantial critical attention for her first novel Ceremony (1977). The story of a half-breed war veteran's struggle for sanity after returning home from World War II, the book explores the redemptive powers of Native American ceremony—not just as formal ritual but as a means of conducting one’s life. With its depiction of life on the Indian reservation and its exploration of philosophical issues, Ceremony established Silko as an important Native American writer and marked her as the first Native American woman novelist. After the publication of Ceremony in 1977, Silko received greater recognition for her earlier work, including the exemplary short stories "Lullaby," "Yellow Woman," and "Tony's Story." "Lullaby"—an old woman's recollection of how her children were once taken away for education and how they returned to a culture that no longer seemed familiar or comfortable—is typical Silko, dealing with themes of alienation and generational difference that mark the daily reality of Native Americans. Silko included many early stories in her collection Storyteller (1981), which features her poetry as well. In the New York Times Book Review, Pulitzer-prize winning novelist N. Scott Momaday called Storyteller "a rich, many-faceted book." Momaday contended, "Leslie Silko is very good indeed. She has a sharp sense of the way in which the profound and the mundane often run together."
Silko’s next book took over ten years to complete. Using her MacArthur fellowship to fund the years spent working on the epic Almanac of the Dead (1991), Silko acknowledged the effect of her cash prize to Time, admitting that she was now "a little less beholden to the everyday world." Almanac of the Dead "ranges over five centuries of the struggle between Native Americans and Europeans and focuses upon a half-breed Tucson family voyaging to Africa and Israel," noted John Domini in the San Francisco Review of Books. In addition to its wide scope, the novel contains a multitude of original, colorful characters. Silko discussed the ways in which she experimented with characterization in the novel. In an interview with Linda Niemann for the Women's Review of Books, Silko commented: "I was trying to give history a character. It was as if native spirits were possessing me, like a spell…I knew I was breaking rules about not doing characters in the traditional way, but this other notion took over—and I couldn't tell you rationally why. I knew it was about time and about old notions of history, and about narrative being alive."
Silko's third novel, Gardens in the Dunes (1999), directly contrasts the traditional world of Native Americans with European and American upper-class culture. Following the adventures of a young Native American girl through nineteenth-century America and Europe, Silko explores differing cultural attitudes towards nature, drawing sharp contrasts between Native American stewardship and Euro-American exploitation.
Considered by many as one of the most important contemporary Native American writers, Silko bridges cultures in all of her work. "I see myself as a member of the global community," Silko told Thomas Irmer for an interview in the Write Stuff. "My old folks who raised me saw themselves as citizens of the world. We see no borders. When I write I am writing to the world, not to the United States alone."
- Laguna Woman: Poems, Greenfield Review Press (Greenfield Center, NY), 1974.
- Western Stories, 1980.
- Storyteller (includes short stories), Seaver Books (New York, NY), 1981.
- Voices under One Sky (poems) Crossing Press (Freedom, CA), 1994.
- Rain (poems), Library Fellows of the Whitney Museum of American Art and Grenfell Press (New York, NY), 1996.
- Love Poem and Slim Canyon, 1996.
- Ceremony, Viking (New York, NY), 1977.
- Almanac of the Dead, Simon & Shuster (New York, NY), 1991.
- Gardens in the Dunes, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1999.
- (With Frank Chin) Lullaby (a play adaptation of a story by Silko), produced in San Francisco, 1976.
- (With James A. Wright) Delicacy and Strength of Lace: Letters between Leslie Marmon Silko and James Wright, Graywolf Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1985.
- Yellow Woman (criticism), edited by Melody Graulich, Rutgers University Press (New Brunswick, NJ), 1993.
- Sacred Water: Narratives and Pictures, Flood Plain Press (Tuscon, AZ), 1993.
- Rooster and the Power of Love (correspondence), Norton (New York, NY), 1995.
- Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1996.
- Conversations with Leslie Marmon Silko, edited by L. Arnold, University Press of Mississippi (Jackson, MS), 2000.
- The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir, Viking (New York), 2010.
- Allen, Paula Gunn, editor, Studies in American Indian Literature: Critical Essays and Course Designs, Modern Language Association of America, 1983, pp. 127-33.
- Barnard, Anja, and Anna Sheets Nesbitt, editors, Short Story Criticism, Volume 37, Gale (Detroit, MI), 2000.
- Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 23, 1983, Volume 74, 1993, Volume 114, 1999, pp. 282-344.
- Contemporary Poets, 7th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2001.
- Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 143: American Novelists since World War II, Third Series, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1994, Volume 175: Native American Writers of the United States, 1997.
- Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd edition, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.
- Native North American Literature, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1994.
- Patraka, Vivian, and Louise A. Tilly, editors, Feminist Re-Visions: What Has Been and Might Be, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, MI), 1983, pp. 26-42.
- Riggs, Thomas, editor, Reference Guide to American Literature, 4th Edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2000.
- Scholer, Bo, editor, Coyote Was Here: Essays on Contemporary Native American Literary and Political Mobilization, Seklos, 1984, pp. 116-23.
- Seyerstad, Per, Leslie Marmon Silko, Boise State University, 1980, pp. 45-50.
- Velie, Alan R., Four American Indian Literary Masters: N. Scott Momaday, James Welch, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Gerald Vizenor, University of Oklahoma Press, 1982, pp. 106-21.
- American Indian Quarterly, winter, 1977-78, Peter G. Beidler, review of Ceremony; fall, 1988, pp. 313-28; fall, 1990, pp. 367-77; spring, 1990, pp. 155-59; summer, 1999, p. 24; winter, 2000, p. 1.
- Arizona Quarterly, spring, 1988, pp. 86-94.
- Bloomsbury Review, April/May, 1992, M. Annette Jaimes, review of Almanac of the Dead, p. 5.
- Booklist, February 15, 1996, p. 988; February 1, 1999, Donna Seaman, review of Gardens in the Dunes, p. 942; December 15, 2000, Donna Seaman, review of Gardens in the Dunes, p. 787.
- Chicago Tribune, December 1, 1991, p. 30.
- College Literature, fall, 2000, p. 88; winter, 2001, review of Almanac of the Dead and Storyteller, p. 29.
- Critique, spring, 1983, pp. 158-72.
- Denver Quarterly, winter, 1980, pp. 22-30.
- Explicator, fall, 2001, p. 54.
- Genre, fall, 1988, pp. 307-19.
- Harper's, June, 1977.
- Journal of the Southwest, autumn, 1988, pp. 281-316.
- Los Angeles Times, January 13, 1992, pp. E1, E3.
- Los Angeles Times Book Review, January 4, 1987; February 2, 1992, Paul West, review of Almanac of the Dead, p. 8.
- MELUS, winter, 1978; summer, 1981; winter, 1983, pp. 37-48; spring, 1985, pp. 25-36 and 65-78; spring, 1988, pp. 83-95; summer, 1993, pp. 47-60.
- Ms., July, 1981.
- New Leader, June 6, 1977.
- Newsweek, July 4, 1977, pp. 73-4; November 18, 1991, p. 84.
- New York Times, May 25, 1981.
- New York Times Book Review, June 12, 1977, Frank MacShane, review of Ceremony; May 24, 1981, N. Scott Momaday, review of Storyteller; December 22, 1991, p. 6; April 18, 1999, review of Gardens in the Dunes, p. 31.
- Prairie Schooner Review, Winter, 1977-78, Elaine Jahner, review of Ceremony.
- Publishers Weekly, March 1, 1999, review of Gardens in the Dunes, p. 59.
- San Francisco Review of Books, fall, 1992, John Domini, review of Almanac of the Dead, p. 18.
- Saturday Review, May, 1981.
- Southern Folklore, no. 2, 1989, pp. 133-46.
- Southwest Review, spring, 1979, Edith Blicksilver, review of "Lullaby."
- Time, August 8, 1983; May 3, 1999, review of Gardens in the Dunes, p. 78.
- Village Voice Literary Supplement, November, 1991, pp. 17-18.
- Washington Post Book World, April 24, 1977, Charles R. Larson, review of Ceremony.
- Western American Literature, February, 1994, pp. 301-12; spring, 1999, review of The Delicacy and Strength of Lace, p. 48.
- Women's Review of Books, July, 1992, Linda Niemann, interview with Silko, p. 10.
- Standards, http:// www.colorado.edu/journals/standards/ (January 28, 2003), Volume 6, Emmanuela de Léon, review of Delicacy and Strength of Lace: Letters between Leslie Marmon Silko and James Wright.
- Voices from the Gaps, http://voices.cla.umn.edu/ (October 9, 2002), "Biography-Criticism" of Leslie Marmon Silko.
- Write Stuff, http:// www.altx.com/interviews/ (October 9, 2002), Thomas Irmer, "An Interview with Leslie Marmon Silko."