Louise Imogen Guiney
Guiney was born in Boston, the daughter of an Irish-Catholic immigrant who was a general in the Union Army during the Civil War. Critics frequently note the role of Guiney's father in establishing the ideal of chivalric heroism later presented in her poetry. Pursuing a liberal arts curriculum at the Elmhurst Academy in Providence, Rhode Island, Guiney graduated in 1879, two years after her father's death. Throughout most of the next two decades she resided with her mother and aunt in Boston and Auburndale, Massachusetts.
Guiney began writing poems and essays in the early 1880s that were published in New England periodicals. Her first collection of poetry, Songs at the Start, appeared in 1884 to critical approval; her first volume of essays, Goose-Quill Papers, was published the next year to a similar reception. During the late 1880s Guiney produced essays, fairy tales, and a second volume of poetry, The White Sail, and Other Poems. She lived in England from 1889 to 1891, meeting several writers and antiquarians whose work encouraged her interest in the Catholic tradition in English literature. After returning to Massachusetts, Guiney completed her first biography, "Monsieur Henri": A Foot-Note to French History, a work that details the life of the eighteenth-century French military figure Henri du Vergier, Comte de la Rochejaquelein, and in 1893 her most renowned volume of poems, A Roadside Harp, was published. While A Roadside Harp garnered much critical commendation, Guiney was not able to subsist financially on her literary earnings at this time, and she worked at several jobs during the 1890s, including a position as a postal official in Auburndale.
In 1901 Guiney moved to Oxford, England, where she devoted herself to writing essays and works of criticism that she contributed to English journals. Throughout the following decade she also completed several biographies and was engaged in editing the works of various authors, especially those associated with the Catholic literary tradition in England and Ireland. Her last collection of poetry, Happy Ending: The Collected Lyrics of Louise Imogen Guiney, was published in 1909 and includes selections from her previous works as well as unpublished poems. During the succeeding decade Guiney suffered frequent health problems that significantly interfered with her literary endeavors. She died of arteriosclerosis in 1920.
Criticism of Guiney's works generally focuses on her poetry, particularly emphasizing her use of archaic poetic structures and themes. Her first two collections, Songs at the Start and The White Sail, are similar in content and style. Both present subject matter derived from classical legend and tales of medieval gallantry, as well as from the natural world, employing strong rhythms and imagery to convey concepts of valor and moral fortitude that resonate the concerns of English literature of the 1600s. Helen Tracy Porter commented in a 1901 Poet Lore essay, "[Guiney] revels in all the richness of the literary past, having made it her own beyond peradventure. To read her is much of an education in the pathsparticularly in the choice and least-frequented pathsof English letters." Some commentators, however, have occasionally faulted Guiney's early poetry for a derivative style and overly condensed diction.
Guiney's poetic voice was established, critics contend, with A Roadside Harp, a collection of works marked by finely attuned rhythms and rigorous attention to form. The volume includes such sonnets and lyrical ballads as "The Vigil-at-Arms" expressing a chivalric ethos, as well as those including "The Kings" that mark Guiney's use of pagan themes and motifs derived from Greek mythology in the collection. A Roadside Harp, pointed out Leggott in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, was clearly inspired by the poet's travels: "The congeniality of that experience is apparent in the many poems of place and occasion and more fundamentally in the clear, musical lines throughout the book which suggest Guiney's pleasure in a land that was still amazingly resonant with the sources of her own poetry." The works in her later volumes, "England and Yesterday" and The Martyr's Idyl, and Shorter Poems, are deemed less successful than her previous poems.
Guiney's literary studies and editions of other poets' works are credited with establishing several little known authors as valid subjects of further critical study, most notably nineteenth-century Irish poet James Clarence Mangan. Guiney is also praised for the posthumously published Recusant Poets, an anthology of poetry by Catholic authors from the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries that she coedited with Geoffrey Bliss.
Guiney's essays and biographies generally deal with minor figures in English and Irish history, and include works on English Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion and Irish nationalist Robert Emmet. While at the turn of the century Guiney was regarded as a major contributor to American literature, her reputation during the late twentieth century has largely declined. Critics today generally view Guiney's poetry as aesthetically dated, especially in light of modernist poetry, although her works continue to earn respect for their craft and moral concerns. As Michele J. Leggott wrote in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, "her recognition of seventeenth-century poetry as one of the best of possible models for a vigorous modern poetic justifies the Guiney scholarship which has persisted since her death."
- Songs at the Start, Cupples, Upham (Boston), 1884.
- Goose-Quill Papers, Roberts Brothers (Boston), 1885.
- The White Sail, and Other Poems, Ticknor (Boston), 1887.
- Brownies and Bogles, D. Lothrop (Boston), 1888.
- (Editor, with Alice Brown) A Summer in England. A Hand-Book for the Use of American Women, Women's Rest Tour Association (Boston), 1891.
- "Monsieur Henri": A Foot-Note to French History, Harper (New York City), 1892.
- A Roadside Harp: A Book of Verses, Houghton, Mifflin (Boston and New York City), 1893.
- A Little English Gallery, Harper (New York, NY), 1894.
- Nine Sonnets Written at Oxford, privately printed (Cambridge, MA), 1895.
- Lovers' Saint Ruth's and Three Other Tales, Copeland & Day (Boston), 1895.
- Patrins, To Which Is Added an Inquirendo into the Wit & Other Good Parts of His Late Majesty King Charles the Second, Copeland & Day (Boston), 1897.
- "England and Yesterday": A Book of Short Poems, Grant Richards (London), 1898.
- (Translator) Louise Morvan, The Secret of Fougereuse, Marlier, Callanan (Boston), 1898.
- (Translator) Saint Francis of Assisi, The Sermon to the Birds and the Wolf of Gubbio. Being Part of the XVI Chapter and the Entire XXI Chapter of the Fioetti de San Francesco, privately printed by Copeland & Day (Boston), 1898.
- The Martyr's Idyl, and Shorter Poems, Houghton, Mifflin (Boston and New York City), 1899.
- (Editor) Henry Vaughan, The Mount of Olives and Primitive Holiness Set Forth in the Life of Paulinus Bishop of Nola, Henry Frowde/Oxford University Press (London), 1902.
- Robert Emmet: A Survey of His Rebellion and His Romance, David Nutt (London), 1904.
- (Editor) Hurrell Froude, Memoranda and Comments, Methuen (London), 1904.
- (Editor and author of introduction) Thomas Stanley, His Original Lyrics, J. R. Tutin (Hull, England), 1907.
- Blessed Edward Campion, Macdonald & Evans (London), 1908, Benziger (New York City, Cincinnati, and Chicago), 1908.
- Happy Ending: The Collected Lyrics of Louise Imogen Guiney, Houghton, Mifflin (Boston and New York City), 1909, revised and enlarged, 1927.
- (Assistant editor to Thomas Whittemore) Lionel Johnson, Post-Limnium: Essays and Critical Papers, Elkin Mathews (London), 1912, Kennerly (New York, NY), 1912.
- (Editor and author introduction) Lionel Johnson Some Poems of Lionel Johnson, Newly Selected, Elkin Mathews (London), 1912.
- Letters of Louise Imogen Guiney, two volumes, edited by Grace Guiney, Harper (New York City and London), 1926.
- (Editor with Geoffrey Bliss, with final revisions by Edward J. O'Brien) Recusant Poets, Sheed & Ward (London), 1938, Sheed & Ward (New York City), 1939.
- Memories of an Old Girl, Moshassuck (Glenview, IL), 1999.
FURTHER READINGS ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
- Brown, Alice, Louise Imogen Guiney, Macmillan, 1921.
- Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 54: American Poets, 1880-1945, Volume 1, Gale (Detroit), 1987.
- Fairbanks, Henry G., Louise Imogen Guiney, Twayne (New York, NY), 1973.
- Fairbanks, Henry G., Louise Imogen Guiney: Laureate of the Lost, Magi Books (Albany, NY), 1972.
- Gregory, Horace, and Marya Zaturenska, A History of American Poetry, 1900-1940, Harcourt, Brace, 1946, pp. 79-106.
- Tenison, E. M., Louise Imogen Guiney: Her Life and Works, Macmillan (London), 1923.
- Walker, Cheryl, The Nightingale's Burden: Women Poets and American Culture before 1900, Indiana University Press, 1982, pp. 117-37.
- America, August 9, 1930, pp. 430-31; March 4, 1944, pp. 605-606.
- American Ecclesiastical Review, June, 1957, pp. 364-70.
- American Transcendental Quarterly: A Journal of New England Writers, summer-fall, 1980, pp. 171-86.
- Bookman, February, 1921, pp. 515-20.
- Chap-Book, November 15, 1894, pp. 27-36.
- Dalhousie Review, summer, 1975, pp. 205-26.
- Dial, November 1, 1893, pp. 265-69.
- Poet Lore, April/May/ June, 1901, pp. 287-99.
- Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, March-June, 1959, pp. 58-64.*
Poems By LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY
LIFE SPAN 1861–1920