Malcolm Cowley

1898–1989
Malcolm Cowley
In 1934 Malcolm Cowley published an autobiographical literary history, Exile's Return: A Narrative of Ideas, and established himself as an important writer. Three decades later in 1965 the editor of Literary Times would write, "Malcolm Cowley is, next to Edmund Wilson, the finest literary historian and critic . . . in America today."

While in the early 1930s Cowley's name was often associated with Communism and the political left, reviewers frequently noted that his most important achievement as a critic was his treatment of William Faulkner's fiction. The Literary Times editor wrote: "Probably more than any single person, Cowley is responsible for the entrenchment of . . . Faulkner as a major American writer with his brilliant introduction and presentation of The Portable Faulkner in 1946."

Cowley is also recognized as one of the major literary historians of the twentieth century, and his Exile's Return, if not the definitive chronicle of the 1920s, is certainly one of the most widely read. At the time the book was first published in 1934, J. D. Adams of the New York Times noted: "As the sincere attempt of a writer of our time to explain himself and his generation, to trace the flux of ideas and other influences to which he was subjected during his formative years, Mr. Cowley's book is a valuable document. It should interest the literary historian of the future no less than it must interest Mr. Cowley's contemporaries, however hard some of them may find it to grant him all his premises and to agree with all his deductions from them." When Exile's Return was revised in 1951, the new edition sparked further critical commentary. Lloyd Morris, in a New York Herald Tribune Book Review article, called it "the most vivacious of all accounts of literary life during the fabulous 1920s" and said that the book "offers an intimate realistic portrait of the era that produced a renaissance in American fiction and poetry." J. W. Krutch of the Saturday Review of Literature noted that "Mr. Cowley's estimate of his most successful elder contemporaries, including Joyce, Eliot, and Proust, is cool and on the whole rather remarkably far this side of idolatry. But these evaluations do not seem unjust, and his picture of life on the Left Bank and in Greenwich Village is highly colored without being exaggerated."

Another literary history for which Cowley received considerable praise was A Second Flowering: Works and Days of the Lost Generation, which deals with the works of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, e. e. cummings, Thornton Wilder, William Faulkner, Thomas Wolfe, and Hart Crane. William Styron, in a New York Times Book Review article, wrote: "It is testimony to Cowley's gifts both as a critic and a literary chronicler that the angle of vision seems new; that is, not only are his insights into these writers' works almost consistently arresting, but so are his portraits of the men themselves."

Writing in the Sewanee Review, Lewis P. Simpson explaind that Cowley dedicated a portion of his career "to redeem[ing] the American writer from his condition of alienation." According to Simpson, the theme of alienation ran throughout Cowley's entire body of work, including his poetry. "As both a creator and an interpreter of the literature of the lost generation," continued the critic, "Cowley is a contributor to one of its leading aspects: a myth or a legend of creativity which is definable as a poetics of exile. He apprehended first the American writer's exile from childhood, second his exile from society, and finally his exile from what may be termed the sense of being in the wholeness of the self." In works such as Exile's Return these first two "stages" may be seen; in Blue Juniata: Collected Poems the third—the exile from self—is in evidence.

In an interview with Allen Geller, Cowley compared the literature of the 1960s and 1970s to the work produced earlier in the century. "I think there is a very interesting group of writers today," he said, mentioning Saul Bellow and John Cheever among those he considered most important. "[Literary taste] has become more sophisticated. Whether it's better or not is always the question, but it has more knowledge, more points of reference." He added, "The great change from the 1930s is that nobody any longer believes in his duty or ability to any extent or in any manner whatever to reshape or alter conditions."

Regarding his own career, Cowley explained to Southern Review interviewer Diane U. Eisenberg: "I didn't drive myself to write some big work that was really expected of me. I had chances, too, but I didn't drive myself to finish it. And the fact that I didn't drive myself hard enough in my twenties is the big error I made. I should have been looking much more at the big overall pattern . . . keeping at producing bigger books." Still, he remained content that his life was spent in the field of literature. "The writer's trade is a laborious, tedious but lovely occupation of putting words into patterns," he told Eisenberg. "I love that trade, profession, vocation. And that is something that persists over time."

The majority of Cowley's books were published after his seventieth birthday. He retired from writing in 1983, and from then on remained on the sidelines of literary study. His papers are housed at the Newberry Library, Chicago, and at Yale University. "Too damned many papers," the writer told Contemporary Authors four years before his death in 1989. "Not enough remaining time."

Career

Writer, editor, lecturer. Worked for Sweet's Architectural Service, New York City; freelance writer and translator, 1925-29; New Republic, New York City, literary editor, 1929-40; Office of Facts and Figures, Washington, DC, member of staff, 1942; Viking Press, New York City, literary adviser, 1948-85. Visiting professor, University of Washington, 1950-51; Stanford University, 1956-57, 1959-61, and 1965; University of Michigan, 1957-58; University of California, 1962-63; Cornell University, 1964-65; Hollins College, 1968-69 and 1970-71; University of Minnesota, 1971-72; and University of Warwick, 1973. Helped organize first American Writers Congress in 1935, and co-founder of resultant League of American Writers; director of Corporation of Yaddo. Chairman of zoning board, Sherman, CT, 1945-68.

Bibliography

  • Exile's Return: A Narrative of Ideas (literary history), Norton (New York City), 1934, revised edition published as Exile's Return: A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s, Viking (New York City), 1951.
  • The Literary Situation (literary history), Viking, 1954.
  • (With Daniel Pratt Mannix) Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518-1865, Viking, 1962.
  • The Faulkner-Cowley File: Letters and Memoirs, 1944-1962, Viking, 1966.
  • Think Back on Us: A Contemporary Chronicle of the 1930s (literary history), edited and with an introduction by Henry Dan Piper, Southern Illinois University Press (Carbondale), 1969.
  • A Many-Windowed House: Collected Essays on American Writers and American Writing, edited by H. D. Piper, Southern Illinois University Press, 1970.
  • (With Howard Hugo) The Lesson of the Masters (criticism), Scribner (New York City), 1971.
  • A Second Flowering: Works and Days of the Lost Generation (literary history), Viking, 1973.
  • And I Worked at the Writer's Trade (memoirs), Viking, 1978.
  • The Dream of the Golden Mountains: Remembering the 1930s (memoirs), Viking, 1980.
  • The View from Eighty (essay), Viking, 1980.
  • The Flower and the Leaf (selected essays), edited by Donald W. Faulkner, Viking, 1985.
  • Unshaken Friend (profile of Maxwell Perkins), Roberts Rinehart (Boulder, CO), 1986.
  • The Selected Correspondence of Kenneth Burke and Malcolm Cowley, 1915-1981, edited by Paul Jay, Viking, 1988.
  • The Portable Malcolm Cowley, edited by Donald W. Faulkner, Penguin (New York City), 1990.
  • New England Writers and Writing, edited by Donald W. Faulkner, University Press of New England (Hanover, NH), 1996.
POETRY
  • Blue Juniata, Cape & Smith, 1929, revised and expanded as Blue Juniata: Collected Poems, Viking, 1968.
  • The Dry Season, New Directions Publishing (New York City), 1941.
  • Blue Juniata: A Life: Collected and New Poems, Viking, 1985.
Poetry anthologized in Eight More Harvard Poets, edited by S. Foster Damon and Robert Hillyer, Brentano's (New York City), 1923, and The Harvard Advocate Anthology, edited by Donald Hall, Twayne (Boston), 1950.

EDITOR
  • Brantz Mayer, Adventures of an African Slaver; Being a True Account of the Life of Captain Theodore Canot, Trader in Gold, Ivory & Slaves on the Coast of Guinea: His Own Story as Told in the Year 1854 to Brantz Mayer Boni (New York City), 1928.
  • (And contributor) After the Genteel Tradition: American Writers since 1910, Norton, 1937, revised edition, Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
  • (With Bernard Smith) Books That Changed Our Minds, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1940.
  • (And author of introduction) The Viking Portable Hemingway, Viking, 1944.
  • (With Hannah Josephson) Aragon, Poet of the French Resistance, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1945, published as Aragon, Poet of Resurgent France, Pilot Press (London), 1946.
  • (And author of introduction) The Portable Faulkner, Viking, 1946, published as The Essential Faulkner, Chatto & Windus (London), 1967.
  • (And author of introduction and notes) The Portable Hawthorne, Viking, 1948, published as Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Selected Works, Chatto & Windus, 1971.
  • (And author of introduction) The Complete Poetry and Prose of Walt Whitman, two volumes, Pellegrini, 1948, published with new introduction as The Works of Walt Whitman, two volumes, Funk (New York City), 1968.
  • (And author of introduction) The Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Selection of Twenty-Eight Stories, Scribner, 1951.
  • (And author of preface) F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tender Is the Night: A Romance... with the Author's Final Revisions, Scribner, 1951.
  • (And author of introduction, with Edmund Wilson) Three Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night (with the Author's Final Revisions), The Last Tycoon, Scribner, 1953.
  • Great Tales of the Deep South, Lion Press, 1955.
  • Writers at Work: The "Paris Review" Interviews, Viking, 1958.
  • (And author of introduction) Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The First (1855) Edition, Viking, 1959.
  • Sherwood Anderson, Winesburg, Ohio, Viking, 1960.
  • (And author of introduction) Ernest Hemingway, Three Novels of Ernest Hemingway, Scribner, 1962.
  • (And author of introduction) The Bodley Head F. Scott Fitzgerald... Short Stories, two volumes, Bodley Head (London), 1963.
  • (With son, Robert Cowley) Fitzgerald and the Jazz Age, Scribner, 1966.
  • (With Howard Hugo) The Lessons of the Masters: An Anthology of the Novel from Cervantes to Hemingway, Scribner, 1971.
TRANSLATOR FROM THE FRENCH
  • Pierre MacOrlan, On Board the Morning Star, A. & C. Boni, 1924.
  • Joseph Delteil, Joan of Arc, Minton, 1926.
  • (And author of introduction) Paul Valery, Variety, Harcourt (San Diego), 1927.
  • (And author of introduction) Marthe Lucie Bibesco, Catherine-Paris, Harcourt, 1928.
  • M. L. Bibesco, The Green Parrot, Harcourt, 1929.
  • (And author of introduction) Maurice Barres, The Sacred Hill, Macaulay, 1929.
  • Raymond Radiguet, The Count's Ball, Norton, 1929.
  • (And author of introduction) Andre Gide, Imaginary Interviews, Knopf (New York City), 1944.
  • (With James R. Lawler) P. Valery, Leonardo, Poe, Mallarme, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1972.
Also author with R. D. Oakes of Van Wyck Brooks, 1963. Contributor to Gargoyle, 1922. Also contributor to Horizon and Sewanee Review. Associate editor, Broom, 1928, and Secession; associate editor and book critic, New Republic, 1929-44. Cowley's papers are housed at the Newberry Library, Chicago.

Further Reading

PERIODICALS
  • Booklist, June 15, 1951.
  • Bookman, October, 1930.
  • Books, May 27, 1934.
  • Canadian Forum, January, 1968.
  • Chicago Tribune, March 3, 1985.
  • Choice, September, 1973.
  • Detroit News, April 21, 1985.
  • Globe and Mail (Toronto), June 15, 1985.
  • Literary Review, autumn, 1968.
  • Literary Times, April, 1965.
  • Los Angeles Times, September 7, 1980; August 4, 1985.
  • Nation, July 4, 1934; June 5, 1967.
  • New Republic, March 11, 1967.
  • New Yorker, June 30, 1951; June 23, 1973.
  • New York Herald Tribune Book Review, May 28, 1934; June 24, 1951; October 7, 1951.
  • New York Post, June 2, 1934.
  • New York Times, May 27, 1934; June 10, 1951; February 13, 1962; August 17, 1977; April 28, 1978; March 26, 1980; October 1, 1980; December 11, 1985.
  • New York Times Book Review, July 8, 1951; February 12, 1967; November 17, 1968; May 6, 1973.
  • Saturday Review, March 11, 1967.
  • Saturday Review of Literature, January 16, 1934; June 30, 1951.
  • Sewanee Review, January/March, 1932; spring, 1976.
  • Southern Review, autumn, 1973; spring, 1977; spring, 1979.
  • Washington Post Book World, September 7, 1980; January 20, 1985; January 26, 1986.
PERIODICALS
  • Chicago Tribune, March 29, 1989.
  • Los Angeles Times, March 29, 1989.
  • New York Times, March 29, 1989.
  • Times (London), March 30, 1989.

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Poet Categorization

SCHOOL / PERIOD Modern

LIFE SPAN 1898–1989

Malcolm Cowley

Biography

In 1934 Malcolm Cowley published an autobiographical literary history, Exile's Return: A Narrative of Ideas, and established himself as an important writer. Three decades later in 1965 the editor of Literary Times would write, "Malcolm Cowley is, next to Edmund Wilson, the finest literary historian and critic . . . in America today."

While in the early 1930s Cowley's name was often associated with Communism and the political . . .

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