Michael S. Harper
Harper’s vision is one that has come through a sustained engagement with other cultures. In an interview with Contemporary Authors, Harper noted that his voice evolved from travels made in the late 1960s “to Mexico and Europe where those landscapes broadened my scope and interest in poetry and culture of other countries while I searched my own family and racial history for folklore, history, and myth for themes that would give my writing the tradition and context where I could find my own voice. My travels made me look closely at the wealth of human materials in my own life, its ethnic richness, complexity of language and stylization, the tension between stated moral idealism and brutal historical realities, and I investigated the inner reality of those struggles to find the lyrical expression of their secrets in my own voice.”
Harper's interest in history pervades his poetry. David Lehman, in Poetry, noted that Harper’s efforts are “attempts of a more historical nature to illuminate the black experience in America.” Using stories from both his family's past and from events in black history in general, he builds a sophisticated vision of racial encounter and experience. Harper's use of jazz and blues in his poems is also remarkable. Through syncopation, rhyme, and rhythm Harper alludes to musical forms that were born out of the African-American experience. In doing so, he often manages to destabilize or blur time and historical awareness. In his first volume, the National Book Award-nominated Dear John, Dear Coltrane (1970), uses the legendary jazz pioneer John Coltrane as a character, as well as cribs his style. Coltrane becomes a link for Harper to connect the historical with his own personal family history.
In his next books, Harper continues to explore his own family ancestry and the trauma of history. History is Your Own Heartbeat (1971) won the Poetry Award of the Black Academy of Letters. The success of Harper’s early work depends on a sense of “history automatically yielding up its metaphor, as the facts are salvaged by the careful eye and ear informed by a remarkable imagination which balances the American present and past,” according to Laurence Lieberman in the Yale Review. Although Harper's early work included many poems about his wife's family, his wife, and their children, it was not until the publication of Nightmare Begins Responsibility (1974) that he began to write about his own past, including the lives of his grandfathers and his mother's mother. But in addition to personal family figures, Harper frequently uses key historical figures. In collections such as Dear John, Dear Coltrane (1970), Debridement (1973), and Images of Kin (1977), also nominated for a National Book Award, figures like baseball player Jackie Robinson, novelist Richard Wright, poet Sterling Brown, and jazz musician John Coltrane are treated as “kin.” Scholar Michael G. Cooke elaborated on Harper’s use of “kinship”: “kinship means social bonding, a recognition of likeness in context, concern, need, liability, value. It is humanistic, a cross between consanguinity and technical organization.” Cooke commented that while Harper “invokes blood relations” in several inspired cases, “his approach to kinship is a radiant one, reaching out across time, across space, even across race” to include white men such as the Puritan dissident and founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, and the farmer-turned-abolitionist, John Brown. Harper's acceptance of both black and white historical figures as “kin” is unique. Both accepting and utilizing black and white literary forms and techniques in his work, Harper acknowledges a dual tradition of American letters.
Harper's recent collections of poetry include Honorable Amendments (1995), Songlines in Michaeltree: New and Collected Poems (2000), which brings together work from Harper's past, as well as previously unpublished verse, Debridement/Song (2002), and Use Trouble (2009). A professor at Brown University since 1970, Harper has helped shape generations of poets, writers and scholars. The first Poet Laureate of Rhode Island (1988-1993), he has received fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Guggenheim Foundation, among others. In 2008 he won the prestigious Frost Medal for Lifetime Achievement from the Poetry Society of America.
In the African-American Review, Keith Leonard wrote that in Harper's “best poems about personal pain, about historical figures like Frederick Douglass, or about musicians and writers and, therefore, about artistry, his chiseled, forbidding poetics effectively suggest the harrowing unity between vision and memory, Western and non-Western, pain and beauty, by which Harper defines black identity and resists literary convention.”
- Dear John, Dear Coltrane, University of Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, PA), 1970, reprinted, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1985.
- History Is Your Own Heartbeat, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1971.
- Photographs, Negatives: History as Apple Tree (also see below), Scarab Press (San Francisco, CA), 1972.
- Song: I Want a Witness (includes Photographs, Negatives: History as Apple Tree), University of Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, PA), 1972.
- Debridement, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1973.
- Nightmare Begins Responsibility, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1974, 1995.
- Images of Kin: New and Selected Poems, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1977.
- Rhode Island: Eight Poems, Pym-Randall, 1981.
- Healing Song for the Inner Ear, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1985.
- Songlines: Mosaics (limited edition), Ziggurat Press/Brown University (Providence, RI), 1991.
- Honorable Amendments: Poems, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1995.
- Songlines in Michaeltree: New and Collected Poems, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 2000.
- Selected Poems, Arc Publicatons (Lancs, England), 2002.
- Debridement/Song: I Want a Witness, Paradigm Press (Providence, RI), 2002.
- Use Trouble, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 2009.
- (Compiler) Ralph Dickey, Leaving Eden: Poems, Bonewhistle Press, 1974.
- (Compiler) Robert Hayden, American Journal (limited edition), Effendi Press, 1978.
- (Editor, with Robert B. Stepto; and contributor) Chant of Saints: A Gathering of Afro-American Literature, Art, and Scholarship, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1979.
- (Compiler) Sterling Allen Brown, The Collected Poems, Harper and Row (New York, NY), 1980, reprinted, TriQuarterly Books (Evanston, IL), 1996.
- Contributor to Black American Literature and Humanism, edited by R. Baxter Miller, University Press of Kentucky, 1981.(Editor, with Anthony Walton) Every Shut Eye Ain't Asleep: An Anthology of Poetry by African Americans since 1945, Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1994.
- (Editor, with Anthony Walton) The Vintage Book of African-American Poetry, Vintage Books (New York, NY), 2000.
Also contributor to poetry anthologies, including The Poetry of Black America, To Gwen with Love, Starting with Poetry, Understanding the New Black Poetry, The Black Poets, and Natural Process. Contributor to periodicals, including Black Scholar, Black World, Chicago Review, Negro American Literature Forum, Negro Digest, and Poetry. Guest editor, Iowa Review, Massachusetts Review, and American Poetry Review. Editor, with John Wright, of special issue of Carleton Miscellany on Ralph Ellison, winter, 1980. Member of editorial boards of TriQuarterly, Georgia Review, and Obsidian.
- Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 7, 1977, Volume 22, 1982.
- Cooke, Michael G., Afro-American Literature in the Twentieth Century: The Achievement of Intimacy, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1984.
- Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 41: Afro-American Poets since 1955, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1985.
- Harper, Michael S., and Robert B. Stepto, editors, Chant of Saints: A Gathering of Afro-American Literature, Art, and Scholarship, University of Illinois Press (Urbana, IL), 1979.
- Lerner, Ben, To Cut Is to Heal, Paradigm Press (Providence, RI), 2000.
- O'Brian, John, editor, Interviews with Black Writers, Liveright, 1973.
- African-American Review, summer, 2002, Keith D. Leonard, review of Songlines in Michaeltree: New and Selected Poems, p. 342.
- Black Iss, March, 1999, review of Every Shut Eye Ain't Asleep: An Anthology of Poetry by African Americans since 1945, p. 23.
- Booklist, February 15, 1994, Donna Seaman, review of Every Shut Eye Ain't Asleep, p. 1054.
- Hollins Critic, June, 1976.
- Library Journal, November 1, 1995, Rochelle Ratner, review of Honorable Amendments: Poems, p. 68; February 1, 2000, Frank Allen, review of The Vintage Book of African-American Poetry, p. 90.
- Los Angeles Times, January 21, 1987.
- Nation, June 21, 1980.
- New Republic, May 17, 1985.
- New York Times Book Review, March 5, 1978; October 13, 1985; February 4, 1996, Elizabeth Gaffney, review of Honorable Amendments, p. 16.
- Parnassus, fall-winter, 1975.
- Poetry, December, 1973; November, 2001, John Taylor, review of Songlines in Michaeltree, p. 105.
- Publishers Weekly, November 27, 1995, review of Honorable Amendments, p. 66; February 7, 2000, review ofThe Vintage Book of African-American Poetry, p. 72; August 28, 2000, review of Songlines in Michaeltree, p. 79.
- Saturday Review, August 8, 1970.
- Times Literary Supplement, May 30, 1980.
- Virginia Quarterly Review, autumn, 1970.
- World Literature Today, winter, 1981; winter, 1986.
- Yale Review, October, 1973.
- Academy of American Poets Web site, http://www.poets.org/ (December 3, 2000).
Poems By MICHAEL S. HARPER
- American History
- Blues Alabama
- Clan Meeting: Births and Nations: A Blood Song
- Dear John, Dear Coltrane
- More poems by Michael S. Harper (18 poems)
LIFE SPAN 1938–