Ted Hughes

1930–1998

One of the giants of 20th century British poetry, Ted Hughes was born in Mytholmroyd, Yorkshire in 1930. After serving as in the Royal Air Force, Hughes attended Cambridge, where he studied archeology and anthropology, taking a special interest in myths and legends. In 1956 he met and married the American poet Sylvia Plath, who encouraged him to submit his manuscript to a first book contest run by The Poetry Center. Awarded first prize by judges Marianne Moore, W.H. Auden, and Stephen Spender, The Hawk in the Rain (1957) secured Hughes’s reputation as a poet of international stature. According to poet and critic Robert B. Shaw, “Hughes’s poetry signaled a dramatic departure from the prevailing modes of the period. The stereotypical poem of the time was determined not to risk too much: politely domestic in its subject matter, understated and mildly ironic in style. By contrast, Hughes marshaled a language of nearly Shakespearean resonance to explore themes which were mythic and elemental.” Hughes’s long career included unprecedented best-selling volumes such as Lupercal (1960), Crow (1970), Selected Poems 1957-1981 (1982), and The Birthday Letters (1998), as well as many beloved children’s books, including The Iron Man (1968). With Seamus Heaney, he edited the popular anthologies The Rattle Bag (1982) and The School Bag (1997). Named executor of Plath’s literary estate, he edited several volumes of her work. Hughes also translated works from Classical authors, including Ovid and Aeschylus. An incredibly prolific poet, translator, editor, and children’s book author, Hughes was appointed Poet Laureate in 1984, a post he held until his death. Among his many awards, he was appointed to the Order of Merit, one of Britain’s highest honors.

The rural landscape of Hughes’s youth in Yorkshire exerted a lasting influence on his work. To read Hughes’s poetry is to enter a world dominated by nature, especially by animals. This holds true for nearly all of his books, from The Hawk in the Rain to Wolfwatching (1989) and Moortown Diary (1989), two of his late collections. Hughes’s love of animals was one of the catalysts in his decision to become a poet. According to London Times contributor Thomas Nye, Hughes once confessed “that he began writing poems in adolescence, when it dawned upon him that his earlier passion for hunting animals in his native Yorkshire ended either in the possession of a dead animal, or at best a trapped one. He wanted to capture not just live animals, but the aliveness of animals in their natural state: their wildness, their quiddity, the fox-ness of the fox and the crow-ness of the crow.” However, Hughes’s interest in animals was generally less naturalistic than symbolic. Using figures such as “Crow” to approximate a mythic everyman, Hughes’s work speaks to his concern with poetry’s vatic, even shamanic powers. Working in sequences and lists, Hughes frequently uncovered a kind of autochthonous, yet literary, English language. According to Peter Davison in the New York Times, “While inhabiting the bodies of creatures, mostly male, Hughes clambers back down the evolutionary chain. He searches deep into the riddles of language, too, those that precede any given tongue, language that reeks of the forest or even the jungle. Such poems often contain a touch—or more than a touch—of melodrama, of the brutal tragedies of Seneca that Hughes adapted for the modern stage.”

Hughes’s posthumous publications include Selected Poems 1957-1994 (2002), an updated and expanded version of the original 1982 edition, and Letters of Ted Hughes (2008), which were edited by Christopher Reid and showcase Hughes’s voluminous correspondence. According to David Orr in the New York Times, Hughes’s “letters are immediately interesting and accessible to third parties to whom they aren’t addressed… Hughes can turn out a memorable description (biographies of Plath are ‘a perpetual smoldering in the cellar for us. There’s always one or two smoking away’), and his offhand observations about poetry can be startlingly perceptive.” The publication of Hughes’s Collected Poems (2003) provided new insights into Hughes’s writing process. Sean O’Brien in the Guardian noted, “Hughes conducted more than one life as a poet.” Publishing both single volumes with Faber, Hughes also released a huge amount of work through small presses and magazines. These poems were frequently not collected, and it seems Hughes thought of his small-press efforts as experiments to see if the poems deserved placement in collections. O’Brien continued: “Clearly [Hughes] needed to be writing all the time, and many of the hitherto uncollected poems have the provisional air of resting for a moment before being taken to completion—except that half the time completion didn't occur and wasn't even the issue… as far as the complete body of work went, Hughes seems to have been more interested in process than outcome.”  

Though Hughes is now unequivocally recognized as one of the greatest poets of the 20th century, his reputation as a poet during his lifetime was perhaps unfairly framed by two events: the suicide of Plath in 1963, and, in 1969, the suicide of the woman he left Plath for, Assia Wevill, who also took the life of their young daughter, Shura. As Plath’s executor, Hughes’s decision to destroy her final diary and his refusal of publication rights to her poems irked many in the literary community. Plath was taken up by some as a symbol of suppressed female genius in the decade after her suicide, and in this scenario Hughes was often cast as the villain. His readings were disrupted by cries of “murderer!” and his surname, which appears on Plath’s gravestone, was repeatedly defaced. Hughes’s unpopular decisions regarding Plath’s writings, over which he had total control after her death, were often in service of his definition of privacy; he also refused to discuss his marriage to Plath after her death. Thus it was with great surprise that, in 1998, the literary world received Hughes’s quite intimate portrait of Plath in the form of Birthday Letters, a collection of prose poems covering every aspect of his relationship with his first wife. The collection received both critical praise and censure; Hughes’s desire to break the silence around Plath’s death was welcomed, even as the poems themselves were scrutinized. Yet despite reservations, Katha Pollitt wrote in the New York Times Book Review that Hughes’s tone, “emotional, direct, regretful, entranced—pervades the book’s strongest poems, which are quiet and thoughtful and conversational. Plath is always ‘you’—as though an old man were leafing through an album with a ghost.”

Though marked by a period of pain and controversy in the 1960s, Hughes’s later life was spent writing and farming. He married Carol Orchard in 1970, and the couple lived on a small farm in Devon until his death. His forays into translations, essays, and criticism were noted for their intelligence and range. Hughes continued writing and publishing poems until his death, from cancer, on October 28, 1998. A memorial to Hughes in the famed Poets’ Corner of Westminster Abbey was unveiled in 2011.

 

 

Career

Writer, Poet Laureate of England. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, instructor, 1958.

Bibliography

POETRY

  • The Hawk in the Rain, Harper (New York, NY), 1957.
  • Pike, Gehenna Press (Northampton, MA), 1959.
  • Lupercal, Harper, 1960.
  • (With Thom Gunn) Selected Poems, Faber and Faber (London, England), 1962.
  • Animal Poems, Gilbertson (Crediton, Devon, England), 1967.
  • Gravestones, Exeter College of Art (Exeter, Devon, England), 1967, published as Poems, 1968.
  • I Said Goodbye to the Earth, Turret (London, England), 1969.
  • The Martyrdom of Bishop Farrer, Gilbertson (Crediton, Devon, England), 1970.
  • Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow, Faber and Faber (London, England), 1970, Harper, 1971, revised edition, Faber and Faber, 1972, Harper, 1981.
  • Fighting for Jerusalem, Mid-NAG (Ashington, Northumberland, England), 1970.
  • Selected Poems, 1957-1967, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Faber and Faber, 1972, Harper, 1973.
  • Cave Birds, Scolar Press (London, England), 1975, enlarged edition published as Cave Birds: An Alchemical Drama, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Faber and Faber, 1978, Viking Press (New York, NY), 1979.
  • The Interrogator: A Titled Vulturess, Scolar Press (London, England), 1975.
  • Guadete, Harper, 1977.
  • Remains of Elmet: A Pennine Sequence, photographs by Fay Godwin, Rainbow Press (London, England), 1979, second revised edition published as Elmet: Poems, Faber and Faber, 1994.
  • In the Black Chapel (poster), Victoria and Albert Museum (London, England), 1979.
  • 1979-83 Woodpecker, Wolverine, Eagle, Mosquito, Tapir’s Saga, Wolf-Watching, Mice Are Funny Little Creatures, Weasels at Work, Fly Inspects (broadsides), Morrigu Press (North Tawton, Devon, England).
  • Moortown (also see below), Faber and Faber, 1979, Harper, 1980.
  • Sky-Furnace, painting by Roger Vick, Caricia Fine Arts (North Tawton, Devon, England), 1981.
  • A Primer of Birds: Poems, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Gehenna Press (Lurley, Devon, England), 1981.
  • Selected Poems: 1957-1981, Faber and Faber, 1982, enlarged edition published as New Selected Poems, Harper, 1982, expanded edition published as New Selected Poems, 1957-1994, Faber and Faber, 1995.
  • River, photographs by Peter Keen, Faber and Faber, 1983, Harper, 1984.
  • Flowers and Insects: Some Birds and a Pair of Spiders, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Knopf (New York, NY), 1986.
  • Tales of the Early World, Faber and Faber, 1988.
  • Wolfwatching, Faber and Faber, 1989.
  • Moortown Diary (originally published in Moortown), Faber and Faber, 1989.
  • Cappriccio, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Gehenna Press (Searsmont, ME), 1990.
  • Rain-Charm for the Duchy and Other Laureate Poems, Faber and Faber, 1992.
  • The Birthday Letters, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (New York, NY), 1998.
  • Selected Poems, 1957-1994, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.
  • Collected Poems, edited by Paul Keegan,Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.
  • Letters of Ted Hughes, edited by Christopher Reid, Farrar, Straus, and Grioux, 2008.

Contributor to All around the Year by Michael Morpurgo, J. Murray, 1979.

POETRY (Limited Editions)

  • The Burning of the Brothel, Turret Books (London, England), 1966.
  • Recklings, Turret Books, 1966.
  • Scapegoats and Rabies: A Poem in Five Parts, Poet & Printer (Woodford Gree, Essex, England), 1967.
  • (With Ruth Fainlight and Alan Sillitoe) Poems, Rainbow Press (London, England), 1967, reprinted, 1971.
  • A Crow Hymn, Sceptre Press (Frensham, Surrey, England), 1970.
  • A Few Crows, Rougemont Press (Exeter, Devon, England), 1970.
  • Amulet, privately printed, 1970.
  • Four Crow Poems, privately printed, 1970.
  • Autumn Song, illustrated by Nina Carroll, Steane (Kettering, Northamptonshire, England), 1971.
  • Crow Wakes: Poems, Poet & Printer, 1971.
  • In The Little Girl’s Angel Gaze, Steam Press (London, England), 1972.
  • Prometheus on His Crag: 21 Poems, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Rainbow Press, 1973.
  • Eclipse, Sceptre Press (Knotting, Bedfordshire, England), 1976.
  • Sunstruck, Sceptre Press, 1977.
  • Chiasmadon, Charles Seluzicki (Baltimore, MD), 1977.
  • Orts, Rainbow Press, 1978.
  • Moortown Elegies, Rainbow Press, 1978.
  • A Solstice, Sceptre Press, 1978.
  • Calder Valley Poems, Rainbow Press, 1978.
  • Adam and the Sacred Nine, Rainbow Press, 1979.
  • Henry Williamson: A Tribute, Rainbow Press, 1979.
  • Four Tales Told by an Idiot, Sceptre Press, 1979.

PLAYS

  • The House of Aries (radio play), broadcast, 1960.
  • The Calm, produced in Boston, MA, 1961.
  • A Houseful of Women (radio play), broadcast, 1961.
  • The Wound (radio play; also see below), broadcast, 1962, revised version produced in London, 1972.
  • Difficulties of a Bridegroom (radio play), broadcast, 1963.
  • Epithalamium, produced in London, 1963.
  • Dogs (radio play), broadcast, 1964.
  • The House of Donkeys (radio play), broadcast, 1965.
  • The Head of Gold (radio play), broadcast, 1967.
  • The Coming of the Kings and Other Plays (juvenile; contains Beauty and the Beast [broadcast, 1965; produced in London, 1971], Sean, the Fool [broadcast, 1968; produced in London, 1971], The Devil and the Cats [broadcast, 1968; produced in London, 1971], The Coming of the Kings [broadcast, 1964; televised, 1967; produced in London, 1972], and The Tiger’s Bones [broadcast, 1965]), Faber and Faber (London, England), 1970, revised edition (also contains Orpheus [broadcast, 1971; also see below]), published as The Tiger’s Bones and Other Plays for Children, illustrated by Alan E. Cober, Viking Press (New York, NY), 1975.
  • The Price of a Bride (juvenile; radio play), broadcast, 1966.
  • (Adapter) Seneca’s Oedipus (produced in London at National Theatre, 1968, in Los Angeles, 1973, in New York, 1977), Faber and Faber (London, England), 1969, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1972.
  • Orghast, produced in Persepolis, Iran, 1971.
  • Eat Crow, Rainbow Press (London, England), 1971.
  • The Iron Man (based on his juvenile book; televised, 1972; also see below), Faber and Faber (London, England), 1973.
  • Orpheus, Dramatic Publishing, 1973.

CHILDREN’S BOOKS

  • Meet My Folks! (verse), illustrated by George Adamson, Faber and Faber (London, England), 1961, Bobbs-Merrill (Indianapolis, IN), 1973, revised edition, Faber and Faber, 1987.
  • The Earth-Owl and Other Moon-People (verse), Faber and Faber, 1963, Atheneum (New York, NY), 1964, published as Moon-Whales and Other Moon Poems, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Viking (New York, NY), 1976, revised edition published as Moon Whales, Faber and Faber, 1988.
  • How the Whale Became and Other Stories, Faber and Faber, 1963, revised edition, Atheneum, 1964, illustrated by Jackie Morris, Orchard Books (New York, NY), 2000.
  • Nessie, The Mannerless Monster (verse), illustrated by Gerald Rose, Faber and Faber, 1964, revised edition published as Nessie the Monster, illustrated by Jan Pyk, Bobbs-Merrill (Indianapolis, IN), 1974.
  • The Iron Giant: A Story in Five Nights, Harper (New York, NY), 1968, revised edition published as The Iron Man: A Story in Five Nights, Faber and Faber, 1968, revised edition, 1984, reprinted under original title, Knopf (New York, NY), 1999.
  • Five Autumn Songs for Children’s Voices, illustrated by Phillida Gili, Gilbertson (Crediton, Devon, England), 1968.
  • Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Rainbow Press (London, England), 1974, revised edition published as Season Songs, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Viking Press, 1975, revised edition, Faber and Faber, 1987.
  • (And illustrator) Earth-Moon, Rainbow Press, 1976.
  • Moon-Bells and Other Poems, Chatto and Windus (London, England), 1978.
  • The Pig Organ; or, Pork with Perfect Pitch (opera), music by Richard Blackford, produced in London at the Round House, 1980.
  • Under the North Star, illustrated by Leonard Baskin, Viking Press, , 1981.
  • (Editor, with Seamus Heaney) The Rattle Bag: An Anthology of Poetry, Faber and Faber, 1982.
  • What Is the Truth?: A Farmyard Fable for the Young, illustrated by R. J. Lloyd, Harper, 1984.
  • Ffangs the Vampire Bat and the Kiss of Truth, Faber and Faber, 1986.
  • The Cat and the Cuckoo: Collected Poems, Wykeham Press (Winchester, England), c. 1987, Roaring Brook Press (Brookfield, CT), 1988.
  • The Iron Woman, Dial (New York, NY), 1995.
  • The Mermaid’s Purse, illustrated by Flora McDonnell, Knopf, 2000.

EDITOR

  • (With Patricia Beer and Vernon Scannell) New Poems 1962, Hutchinson (London, England), 1962.
  • (With Thom Gunn) Five American Poets, Faber and Faber, 1963.
  • Here Today, Hutchinson, 1963.
  • (With Alwyn Hughes) Sylvia Plath, Ariel, Faber and Faber, 1965, Harper (New York, NY), 1966.
  • (And author of introduction) Keith Douglas, Selected Poems, Faber and Faber, 1964, Chilmark Press (New York, NY), 1965.
  • Poetry in the Making: An Anthology of Poems and Programmes from “Listening and Writing,” Faber and Faber, 1967, abridged edition published as Poetry Is, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1970.
  • (And author of introduction) Emily Dickinson, A Choice of Emily Dickinson’s Verse, Faber and Faber, 1968.
  • (And translator, with Assia Gutmann) Yehuda Amichai, Selected Poems, Cape Goliard Press (London, England), 1968, revised edition published as Poems, Harper, 1969.
  • (And author of introduction) William Shakespeare, With Fairest Flowers While Summer Lasts: Poems from Shakespeare (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1971, published as A Choice of Shakespeare’s Verse, Faber and Faber, 1971, introduction published as Shakespeare’s Poem, Lexham Press (London, England), 1971.
  • Sylvia Plath, Crossing the Waters: Transitional Poems, Harper, 1971, published as Crossing the Waters, Faber and Faber, 1971.
  • Sylvia Plath, Winter Trees, Faber and Faber, 1971, reprinted, Harper, 1972.
  • (And translator, with János Csokits) János Pilinszky, Selected Poems, Carcanet (Manchester, England), 1976.
  • (And author of introduction) Sylvia Plath, Johnny Panic and the Bible of Dreams, and Other Prose Writings, Faber and Faber, 1977, Harper, 1979.
  • (And translator, with Yehuda Amichai) Yehuda Amichai, Amen, Harper, 1977.
  • New Poetry 6, Hutchison, 1980.
  • (And author of introduction) Sylvia Plath, The Collected Poems, Harper, 1981.
  • (With Seamus Heaney) Arvon Foundation Poetry Competition: 1980 Anthology, Kilnhurst, 1982.
  • Sylvia Plath, Sylvia Plath’s Selected Poems, Faber and Faber, 1985.
  • Winning Words (stories by children), Faber and Faber, 1991.
  • Dancer to God: Tributes to T. S. Eliot, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux (New York, NY), 1993.
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, A Choice of Coleridge’s Verse, Faber and Faber, 1996.
  • (Consulting editor) Frances McCullough, editor, The Journals of Sylvia Plath, Anchor Books (New York, NY), 1998.

OTHER

  • Wodwo (includes play, The Wound), Harper, 1967.
  • (Translator, with Assia Gutmann) Yehuda Amichai, Selected Poems, Cape Goliard Press (London, England), 1968; expanded edition published as Poems, Harper.
  • The Demon of Adachigahara (libretto), Oxford University Press, 1969.
  • (With others) Corgi Modern Poets in Focus I, edited by Dannie Abse, Corgi (London, England), 1971.
  • (Adapter) The Story of Vasco (libretto; based on a play by Georges Schehade; produced in London, 1974), Oxford University Press, 1974.
  • (Translator) Charles Simic and Mark Strand, editors, Another Republic, Ecco Press, 1977.
  • The Threshold (short story), Steam Press (London, England), 1979.
  • (Translator, with Yehuda Amichai) Yehuda Amichai, Time, Harper, 1979.
  • (Consulting editor and author of foreword) Frances McCullough, editor, The Journals of Sylvia Plath, Dial, 1982.
  • (Translator, with János Csokits) János Pilinszky, The Desert of Love, Anvil Press Poetry, 1988.
  • (Translator, with Harold Schimmel and Assia Gutmann) The Early Books of Yehuda Amichai, Sheep Meadow Press, 1988.
  • Essential Shakespeare, Ecco Press, 1991.
  • Shakespeare and the Goddess of Complete Being, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1992.
  • Winter Pollen: Occasional Prose (essays), edited by William Scammell, Faber and Faber, 1994, Picador USA (New York, NY), 1995.
  • The Dreamfighter, and Other Creation Tales (stories), Faber and Faber, 1995.
  • Difficulties of a Bridegroom: Collected Short Stories, Picador, 1995.
  • (Translator) Ovid, Tales from Ovid, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997.
  • (Translator) Aeschylus, The Oresteia, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.
  • (Translator) Jean Racine, Phèdre, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.
  • (Translator) Euripides, Euripides’ Alcestis, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.

Contributor to numerous anthologies, including Writers on Themselves, BBC Publications, 1964. Contributor to periodicals, including New Yorker, New York Review of Books, and Spectator. Founding editor with Daniel Weissbrot of Modern Poetry in Translation, 1964-71. Hughes published several audio cassettes, particularly his works for children. His papers are contained in a collection at Emory University.

 

 

Further Reading

BOOKS

  • Children's Literature Review, Volume 3, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1978.
  • Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 2, 1974, Volume 4, 1975, Volume 9, 1978, Volume 14, 1980, Volume 37, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1986.
  • Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 40: Poets of Great Britain and Ireland since 1960, Part 1, 1985, Volume 161: British Children's Writers since 1960, first series, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1996.
  • Faas, Ekbert, Ted Hughes: The Unaccommodated Universe, Black Sparrow Press, 1980.
  • Gifford, Terry, and Neil Roberts, Ted Hughes: A Critical Study, Faber and Faber (London, England), 1981.
  • Hamilton, Ian, editor, The Modern Poet: Essays from "The Review," MacDonald, 1968.
  • King, P. R., Nine Contemporary Poets: A Critical Introduction, Methuen, 1979.
  • Malcolm, Janet, The Silent Woman: Sylvia Plath & Ted Hughes, Knopf (New York City), 1994.
  • Myers, Lucas, Crow Steered/Bergs Appeared: A Memoir of Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath, Proctor's Hall Press (Sewanee, TN), 2001.
  • Newsmakers, 1999, Issue 2, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1999.
  • St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.
  • Sagar, Keith, Ted Hughes, Longman, 1972, enlarged as The Art of Ted Hughes, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England), 1978.
  • Sagar, Keith, The Achievement of Ted Hughes, Manchester University Press (Manchester, England), 1983.
  • Sagar, Keith, The Challenge of Ted Hughes, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1994.
  • Tennant, Emma, Sylvia and Ted, Henry Holt (New York, NY), 2001.

PERIODICALS

  • Agenda, winter, 1994.
  • American Poetry Review, January-February, 1982; September, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 11.
  • Antioch Review, winter, 1999, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 117.
  • Booklist, February 15, 1998, review ofThe Birthday Letters, p. 946; March 15, 1999, review of Tales from Ovid, p. 1295; June 1, 1999, review of The Oresteia, p. 1770.
  • Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, October, 1995.
  • Chicago Tribune, October 30, 1998, sec. 1, p. 13.
  • Chicago Tribune Book World, February 22, 1981, Joseph Parisi, review of Moortown.
  • Christian Science Monitor, March 11, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 14.
  • Commonweal, November 6, 1992.
  • Guardian, October 30, 1998, Katharine Viner and others, "Beneath the Passion, a Life Plagued by Demons," p. 4.
  • Independent, October 30, 1998, Boyd Tonkin, "The God of Granite Who Could Shatter Stones with Plain Words," p. 3, Lachlan Mackinnon, "Ted Hughes," p. 6.
  • Library Journal, May 15, 1993; February 15, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 145; review of The Oresteia, p. 110; June 1, 1999.
  • Listener, January 12, 1984.
  • Literary Review, spring, 1981.
  • London Review of Books, February 19, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 8.
  • Los Angeles Times, October 30, 1998, Marjorie Miller, "Britain Loses Poet laureate Ted Hughes, 68, to Cancer," pp. A1, A12.
  • Los Angeles Times Book Review, August 10, 1980, Peter Clothier, review of Moortown; March 15, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 7.
  • Nation, April 20, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 25.
  • New England Review, fall, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 154.
  • New Republic, September 3, 1984; June 6, 1994, p. 34; March 30, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 30.
  • New Statesman, January 4, 1980.
  • New Statesman and Society, April 17, 1992; April 14, 1995, p. 45; January 30, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 45.
  • Newsweek, April 12, 1971, Jack Kroll, review of Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow.
  • New Yorker, August 23, 1993.
  • New York Review of Books, June 10, 1982; March 5, 1998, review ofThe Birthday Letters, p. 7.
  • New York Times Book Review, July 20, 1980, Christopher Ricks, review of Moortown, p. 13; April 21, 1991, William Logan, review of Wolfwatching, p. 22; January 7, 1996, Penelope Laurans, review of Winter Pollen: Occasional Prose, p. 21; October 13, 1996, Andy Solomon, review of Difficulties of a Bridegroom: Collected Short Stories; December 14, 1997, James Shapiro, "Sex and Violence in Latin Hexameter"; February 13, 1998, Michiko Kakutani, "A Portrait of Plath in Poetry for Its Own Sake," p. 43; March 1, 1998, Katha Pollitt, "Peering into the Bell Jar," p. 4; March 15, 1998, Carol Muske, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 5; May 31, 1998, review of Tales from Ovid, p. 24; January 24, 1999, Eavan Boland, "Ted Hughes: A Reconciliation," p. 31; September 5, 1999, Garry Wills, "After the Trojan Horse: A New Translation by Ted Hughes of Aeschylus' Trilogy on the Fall of the House of Atreus," p. 10.
  • Observer (London), June 14, 1992; March 5, 1995; February 1, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 15; December 6, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 15; May 2, 1999, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 14; May 15, 2001, Vanessa Thorpe, "Secret Passions of a Poet Laureate," p. 4.
  • Poetry, June, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters and Tales from Ovid, p. 154.
  • Publishers Weekly, July 17, 1995, p. 230; August 21, 1995, p. 56; February 2, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 75; May 31, 1999, review of The Oresteia, p. 89.
  • Quill and Quire, February, 1994, p. 40.
  • School Librarian, November, 1991, p. 144; August, 1993, p. 108; February, 1996, p. 28.
  • Sewanee Review, July, 1998, review of Winter Pollen, p. 69.
  • Spectator, June 20, 1992; March 12, 1994; March 18, 1995; January 31, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 42.
  • Time, April 5, 1971, Christopher Porterfield; February 16, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 101.
  • Times (London), January 8, 1987, April 8, 2000, James Bone, "Hughes Papers Reveal Devotion to Plath," p. 10; April 10, 2000, James Bone, "Plath Owed Her Success to Me, Says Hughes," p. 5, Erica Wagner, "At Last, Justice for Hughes," p. S6; May 15, 2001, Erica Wagner, "The Poet as Rock God," p. S2; October 30, 1998, Peter Stothard, "The Poet Laureate's Last Reading," p. 24.
  • Times Educational Supplement, January 30, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 12.
  • Times Literary Supplement, January 4, 1980; April 17, 1992; May 6, 1994; November 17, 1995; February 6, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 3; December 4, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters.
  • USA Today, October 29, 1998.
  • Washington Post Book World, November 22, 1992, Gary Taylor; March 8, 1998, Linda Pastan, "Scenes from a Marriage," p. 5; March 15, 1998, review of Difficulties of a Bridegroom, p. 12.
  • Women's Review of Books, June, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 8.
  • World Literature Today, spring, 1998, review of Tales from Ovid, p. 379; summer, 1998, review of The Birthday Letters, p. 621.

OTHER

  • Academy of American Poets, http://www.poets.org/ (September 12, 2001), "Ted Hughes."

OBITUARIES:

PERIODICALS

  • New York Times, October 30, 1998, Sarah Lyall, "Ted Hughes, 68, a Symbolic Poet and Sylvia Plath's Husband, Dies," p. A1.
  • Washington Post, October 30, 1998, "British Poet Laureate Ted Hughes Dies at 68; Turbulent Marriage to Writer Silvia Plath Dogged His Reputation after Her Suicide," p. B6.

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Articles About TED HUGHES

Poet Categorization

POET’S REGION England

SCHOOL / PERIOD Confessional

LIFE SPAN 1930–1998

Biography

One of the giants of 20th century British poetry, Ted Hughes was born in Mytholmroyd, Yorkshire in 1930. After serving as in the Royal Air Force, Hughes attended Cambridge, where he studied archeology and anthropology, taking a special interest in myths and legends. In 1956 he met and married the American poet Sylvia Plath, who encouraged him to submit his manuscript to a first book contest run by The Poetry Center. Awarded . . .

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