Thom Gunn was born in Kent, England to parents who were both journalists. Gunn’s early life was peripatetic; after his parents’ divorce, he traveled with his father to various assignments and attended a number of different schools. His mother committed suicide when Gunn was fifteen. In an interview with the Paris Review Gunn spoke about the effect of his mother’s death: “I was devastated for about four years. I very much retired into myself. I read an enormous number of Victorian novels and eighteenth-century ones too. I read them very much as an escape… I gradually came out of it, but it was a difficult four years or so. I don’t think I knew how difficult they were at the time—luckily—so maybe originally I wrote as a way of getting out of that, but I can’t tell.” After completing his initial schooling, he served in the British Army for two years and then moved to Paris for six months, where he read Proust and wrote fiction. Gunn was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge during the heyday of F.R. Leavis. His first collection of poetry, Fighting Terms (1954) was published the year after he graduated. Gunn’s early poetry—with its unembarrassed presentations of love as interpersonal combat and its focus on the upheavals of war and the freedom of life on the road—was widely praised.
Gunn left England shortly after his first book. With his partner, Michael Kitay, who he met at Cambridge, Gunn moved to California to study poetry with Yvor Winters. He spent the rest of his life in San Francisco with Kitay. Gradually, he began reading the poetry of William Carlos Williams, Gary Snyder, and Robert Duncan, influences that would shape his poetry profoundly. Perhaps because of his dual, and dueling, allegiances, Gunn’s work is often remarked on as hybrid: as an English poet who was also a long-time resident of California, his poems combine a respect for traditional poetic forms with an interest in popular topics, such as the Hell’s Angels, LSD, and queer culture. While Gunn wrote most of his early verses in iambic pentameter—a phase when his ambition was “to be the John Donne of the twentieth century”—his later works assume a variety of forms, including syllabic stanzas and free verse. The course of Gunn’s development is recorded in Selected Poems 1950-1975 (1979), in which “the language begins as English and progresses toward American,” according to Nation reviewer Donald Hall.
Gunn’s early collections of poetry include The Sense of Movement (1957) and My Sad Captains (1961), a book divided into halves. The first half included poems written in the heroic verse of his first two books, and the second began to experiment with syllabic verse. The book proved a watershed, and Gunn’s collections after all find him moving between high and low, old and new styles. Books such as Touch (1967), Moly (1971), Jack Straw’s Castle (1976), and The Passages of Joy (1982) show Gunn’s fusion of “modern” and “traditional” elements. Writing in the New York Times Book Review, M. L. Rosenthal praised Selected Poems 1950-1975 (1979), noting that “Gunn has developed his craft so that by now even his freest compositions have a disciplined music.” Echoing this sentiment, New York Review of Books critic Stephen Spender suggested that the contradiction between the “conventional form” of Gunn’s poems and their “often Californian ‘with it’ subject matter” is what distinguishes his work. Frank representations of violence, deviance, and the life of the counterculture based in San Francisco connect with “yesterday and tomorrow” in Gunn’s art, remarked Charles Champlin in an article for the Los Angeles Times Book Review. “It is,” Spender elaborated, “as though A. E. Housman were dealing with the subject matter of Howl, or Tennyson were on the side of the Lotus Eaters.” Gunn himself once summed up his peculiar poetic lineage: “I have sometimes said to myself, I am the only person in the world ever to have dedicated poems to both Winters and Duncan. They hated each other. They didn’t meet but they hated each other.”
When the 1980s brought the AIDS epidemic to the gay community, Gunn lost many of his friends to the disease. His grief was, according to many critics, profoundly described in The Man with Night Sweats (1992). While the verses often describe heartbreaking personal loss, the poems are never self-indulgent and “never moralistic,” asserted David Ferry in the Boston Review. Nation critic Robert Pinsky similarly wrote that, “even when it has the power to make a reader weep, the writing itself is not dabbing righteously at its eyes. Celebrated poems like ‘Lament,’ ‘In Time of Plague’ and ‘Courtesies of the Interregnum’ have so much dignity along with their force that they do credit to the readers who have made them something like classics already.” “Here is a poet without vanity,” commented Henri Cole in another Nation review, “—the aberration afflicting so many of us—whose poems consider instead those lives that, like branches, crisscross his own. ‘Writing poetry has in fact become a certain stage in my coping with the world,’ he tells us, ‘or in the way I try to understand what happens to me and inside me. Perhaps I could say that my poetry is an attempt to grasp, with grasp meaning both to take hold of in a first bid at possession, and also to understand.’”
Gunn’s later poems increasingly addressed mortality. Love poems took on a sense of irony, as in Boss Cupid (2000). Gunn often wryly commented on how the god of love often aims his arrows at arbitrary targets, thus causing people to fall in love with unsuitable partners. “In contrast to… The Man with Night Sweats,” observed Phoebe Pettingell in New Leader, “which bleakly elegized the AIDS epidemic, Boss Cupid usually manages a laugh in the face of adversity. Gunn uses humor the way he uses rhyme and meter: to give form to fear and emptiness so dreadful that they threaten to overwhelm thought and emotion.” Neither British nor American, Gunn resolutely evaded easy classification throughout his career as a poet. “The point is not legalities of citizenship (Gunn remains a resident alien, fitting a poet both domestic and estranged),” Hall observed in the Los Angeles Times Book Review, “but that he may not be labeled by nationality or anything else. His identity is his resistance to the limitations of identity. He belongs to uncertainty, exploration, movement and ongoingness… Here is the man without conventional supports who refuses title and easy chair, political party and national identity.”
Gunn taught at the University of California-Berkeley off and on from 1958 to 1999. His many honors and awards included the Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize, the Levinson Prize, the W.H. Smith Award, the Sara Teasdale Prize, the Forward Prize, the Rockefeller Award and the Lila Wallace-Reader’s Digest Award. He received fellowships from the Arts Council of Great Britain, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation. Gunn died of heart failure at his home in San Francisco.
Poet and freelance writer, beginning 1966. University of California, Berkeley, lecturer then associate professor of English, 1958-66, visiting lecturer, 1975-90, senior lecturer, 1990-c. 2000.
- Thom Gunn (poetry), Fantasy Press (Oxford, England), 1953.
- Fighting Terms: A Selection, Fantasy Press (Oxford, England), 1954, revised edition, Faber, 1962, original edition reprinted, Bancroft Press, 1983.
- The Sense of Movement, Faber (London, England), 1957, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1959.
- My Sad Captains, and Other Poems (also see below), University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1961.
- (With Ted Hughes) Selected Poems, Faber (London, England), 1962.
- A Geography, Stone Wall Press (Iowa City, IA), 1966.
- Positives, photographs by brother, Ander Gunn, Faber (London, England), 1966, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1967.
- Touch, Faber (London, England), 1967, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1968.
- The Garden of the Gods, Pym-Randall Press (Cambridge, MA), 1968.
- The Explorers, R. Gilbertson (Crediton, Devon, England), 1969.
- The Fair in the Woods, Sycamore Press (Oxford, England), 1969.
- Poems, 1950-1966: A Selection, Faber (London, England), 1969.
- Sunlight, Albondocani Press (New York, NY), 1969.
- Last Days at Teddington, Poem-of-the-Month Club (London, England), 1971.
- Moly (also see below), Faber (London, England), 1971.
- (With others) Corgi Modern Poets in Focus 5, edited by Dannie Abse, Corgi (London, England), 1971.
- Poem after Chaucer, Albondocani Press (New York, NY), 1971.
- Moly [and] My Sad Captains, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1973.
- Mandrakes, Rainbow Press (London, England), 1973.
- Songbook, Albondocani Press (New York, NY), 1973.
- To the Air, David R. Godine (Boston, MA), 1974.
- Jack Straw's Castle, F. Hallman (New York, NY), 1975, expanded as Jack Straw's Castle and Other Poems, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1976.
- The Missed Beat, Janus Press (West Burke, VT), 1976.
- Games of Chance, Abattoir (Omaha, NE), 1979.
- Selected Poems 1950-1975, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1979.
- Bally Power Play, Massey Press (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1979.
- Talbot Road, Helikon Press (New York, NY), 1981.
- The Menace, ManRoot (San Francisco, CA), 1982.
- The Passages of Joy, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1982.
- Lament, Doe Press (Champaign, IL), 1985.
- Sidewalks, Albondocani Press (New York, NY), 1985.
- The Hurtless Trees, Jordan Davies (New York, NY), 1986.
- Night Sweats, R. L. Barth (Florence, KY), 1987.
- Undesirables, Pig Iron Press (Youngstown, OH), 1988.
- At the Barriers, NADJA (New York, NY), 1989.
- Death's Door, Red Hydra, 1989.
- The Man with Night Sweats, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1992.
- Unsought Intimacies: Poems of 1991, Peter Koch (Berkeley, CA), 1993.
- Collected Poems, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1994.
- Boss Cupid, Faber (London, England), 2000.
- (Editor) Poetry from Cambridge 1951-52: A Selection of Verse by Members of the University, Fortune Press (London, England), 1953.
- (Editor with Ted Hughes) Five American Poets, Faber (London, England), 1963.
- (Editor and author of introduction) Fulke Greville Brooke, Selected Poems of Fulke Greville, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1968.
- (Editor) Ben Jonson: Poems, Penguin (New York, NY), 1974.
- The Occasions of Poetry: Essays in Criticism and Autobiography, edited by Clive Wilmer, Farrar, Straus, 1982, expanded edition, North Point Press (San Francisco, CA), 1985.
- Shelf Life: Essays, Memoirs, and an Interview, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, MI), 1993.
- (Editor) Ezra Pound, Faber (London, England), 2000.
- Thom Gunn in Conversation with James Campbell, Between the Lines (London, England), 2000.
- At the Barriers: On the Poetry of Thom Gunn, edited by Joshua Weiner, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 2009.
Also author of Games of Chance, 1982. Contributor of memoir to My Cambridge, 1977. Work represented in many anthologies, including: Springtime, edited by G. S. Fraser and I. Fletcher, Peter Owen, 1953, and Mark in Time, edited by R. Johnson and N. Harvey, Glide Publications, 1971. Poetry reviewer, Yale Review, 1958-64, and London Magazine. Contributor to Encounter, New Statesman, Poetry, Times Literary Supplement, and other publications.
- Bixby, George, and Jack W. C. Hagstrom, Thom Gunn: A Bibliography, 1940-78, Rota (London, England), 1979.
- Bold, Alan, Thom Gunn and Ted Hughes, Oliver & Boyd (Edinburgh, Scotland), 1976.
- Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1992.
- Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 3, 1975, Volume 6, 1976, Volume 18, 1981, Volume 32, 1985, Volume 81, 1994.
- Contemporary Poets, seventh edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2001.
- Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 27: Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, 1945-1960, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1984.
- Dodsworth, Martin, editor, The Survival of Poetry, Faber & Faber, 1970, pp. 193-215.
- Gay and Lesbian Literature, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1994.
- Haffenden, John, editor, Viewpoints: Poets in Conversation, Faber (London, England), 1981.
- King, P. R., Nine Contemporary Poets: A Critical Introduction, Methuen, 1979, pp. 77-106.
- Mander, John, The Writer and Commitment, Secker & Warburg, 1961, pp. 153-178.
- Modern British Literature, second edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2000.
- Morriston, Blake, The Movement: English Poetry and Fiction of the 1950s, Oxford University Press, 1980.
- Press, John, Rule and Energy, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 191-201.
- Rosenthal, M. L., The New Poets, Oxford University Press, 1967, pp. 251-257.
- Advocate, August 10, 1993.
- Booklist, April 15, 1994, Ray Olson, review of Collected Poems, p. 1503; June 1, 2000, Ray Olson, review of Boss Cupid, p. 1808; March 15, 2001, Ray Olson, review of Boss Cupid, p. 1349.
- Book World, September 16, 1973.
- Boston Review, June-August, 1993, David Ferry, "The Rage of Understanding."
- British Book News, April, 1987.
- Chicago Review, spring, 2000, Devin Johnston, review of Boss Cupid, p. 91.
- Critical Quarterly, winter, 1961, pp. 359-367; autumn, 1971, pp. 219-227; summer, 1987.
- Economist, February 22, 1992, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 88.
- Encounter, January, 1983.
- Gay and Lesbian Review, summer, 2000, "Billy Lux Interviews a Poet of the Century," p. 41.
- Guardian, September 1, 1961; March 25, 2000, Robert Potts, "Erotic Balance."
- Iowa Review, winter, 1973, pp. 54-72.
- Lambda Book Report, July-August, 1992, Kenny Fries, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 16.
- Listener, August 12, 1982.
- London Magazine, March, 1963, pp. 45-52; November, 1964, pp. 64-70; December, 1977, pp. 5-15.
- London Review of Books, July 15, 1982.
- Los Angeles Times Book Review, November 6, 1988.
- Massachusetts Review, spring, 1982.
- Nation, November 10, 1979, Donald Hall, review of Selected Poems 1950-1975; August 31, 1992, Henri Cole, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 221; December 6, 1993, Robert Pinsky, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 70.
- New Leader, May, 2000, Phoebe Pettingell, "The Power of Laughter," p. 39.
- New Statesman, October 6, 1961; August 13, 1982.
- New Statesman and Society, March 6, 1992, Michael Horovitz, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 46.
- New Yorker, September 14, 1992, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 108.
- New York Review of Books, September 20, 1973; May 27, 1993, Michael Wood, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 32; June 15, 2000, James Fenton, review of Boss Cupid, p. 45.
- New York Times, August 6, 2000, William Deresiewicz, "Among the Bad Boys," Section 7, p. 25.
- New York Times Book Review, June 16, 1974; January 20, 1980; November 15, 1992, William Logan, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 15; May 27, 1993; May 29, 1994, Richard Tillinghast, review of Collected Poems, p. 10; August 6, 2000, William Deresiewicz, review of Boss Cupid, p. 25.
- Observer (London, England), July 10, 1988; December 13, 1992, Kate Kellaway, "A Poet Who's Still Firing on All Cylinders," p. 43.
- Poetry, August, 1958; May, 1974; September, 1975; February, 1993, Alfred Corn, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 291; February, 1995, David Spurr, review of Collected Poems, p. 289; March, 2001, David Orr, review of Boss Cupid, p. 391.
- Poetry Review, spring, 1966, pp. 32-35.
- Publishers Weekly, February 28, 1994, review of Collected Poems, p. 77; April 17, 2000, review of Boss Cupid, p. 71.
- Raritan, fall, 1993, Charles Berger, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 141; fall, 2000, Lagdon Hammer, "Thom Gunn and the Cool Queer Tales of Cupid," p. 114.
- San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 2000, David Kipen, "Poet Knows Cupid's Aim Is Arbitrary," p. B1.
- Saturday Review, June 1, 1961.
- Sewanee Review, January, 1985.
- Spectator, September 1, 1961; March 7, 1992, William Scammell, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 32.
- Stand, spring, 1989.
- Time, April 24, 2000, Paul Gray, "Poems of Love and Death: Thom Gunn's Boss Cupid Portrays No Winged Angel," p. 80.
- Times Literary Supplement, September 29, 1961; January 1, 1967; October 5, 1967; April 24, 1969; April 16, 1971; August 30, 1974; July 23, 1982; May 1, 1992, Hugh Haughton, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 12; March 18, 1994, Glyn Maxwell, review of Shelf Life: Essays, Memoirs, and an Interview, p. 10; March 10, 2000, Sean O'Brien, review of Boss Cupid, p. 23.
- Village Voice, October 26, 1982, Mark Caldwell.
- Virginia Quarterly Review, autumn, 1992, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 136.
- World Literature Today, summer, 1986; summer, 1993, Bernard F. Dick, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 612; winter, 1995, James McElroy, review of Collected Poems, p. 147; autumn, 2000, Michael Leddy, review of Boss Cupid, p. 818.
- Yale Review, October, 1992, Phoebe Pettingell, review of The Man with Night Sweats, p. 115.
- Interviews with Poets, http://www.interviews-with-poets.com/ (July 23, 2002).
OBITUARIES AND OTHER SOURCES:
- Chicago Tribune, April 29, 2004, section 3, p. 9.
- Los Angeles Times, May 2, 2004, p. B14.
- New York Times, April 28, 2004, p. C14.
- San Francisco Chronicle, April 28, 2004, p. B7.
- Times (London, England), April 28, 2004, p. 26.
- Washington Post, May 11, 2004, p. B7.
Poems By THOM GUNN
More poems by Thom Gunn (34 poems)
- During an Absence
- From the Wave
- High Fidelity
- Human Condition
- In Santa Maria del Popolo
- In the Tank
- In Trust
- Legal Reform
- Lines for a Book
- Merlin in the Cave: He Speculates Without a Book
- My Sad Captains
- No Speech from the Scaffold
- On the Move
- Patch Work
- Tamer and Hawk
- Taylor Street
- The Annihilation of Nothing
- The Antagonism
- The Corridor
- The Hug
- The Man with Night Sweats
- The Old Man in the Britannia
- The Produce District
- The Unsettled Motorcyclist's Vision of His Death
- To Yvor Winters, 1955
- Waking in a Newly-Built House, Oakland
Audio & PodcastsThe Poetry Magazine Podcast
The Dark Has No Teeth
Poems by D. Nurkse, Rae Armantrout, Averill Curdy, and Michael Hofmann, plus Tom Sleigh's take on Thom Gunn.