Verse in the tradition of Theocritus (3 BCE), who wrote idealized accounts of shepherds and their loves living simple, virtuous lives in Arcadia, a mountainous region of Greece. Poets writing in English drew on the pastoral tradition by retreating from the trappings of modernity to the imagined virtues and romance of rural life, as in Edmund Spenser’s The Shepheardes Calendar,
Christopher Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love,”
and Sir Walter Ralegh’s response, “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd.”
The pastoral poem faded after the European Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, but its themes persist in poems that romanticize rural life or reappraise the natural world; see Leonie Adams’s “Country Summer,”
Dylan Thomas’s “Fern Hill,”
or Allen Ginsberg’s “Wales Visitation.”
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