Zooks,Zooks! word of emphasis, from “Gadzooks”, as in “God’s hooks” – referring to the nails that held Christ to the Cross what's to blame? you think you see a monk!
What, 'tis past midnight, and you go the rounds,
And here you catch me at an alley's end
Where sportivesportive amorous in nature, wanton ladies leave their doors ajar?
The Carmine'sCarmine’s Convent of the Carmine, where Lippi was placed at the age of eight. my cloister: hunt it up,
Do,—harry outharry out drive off, if you must show your zeal,
Whatever rat, there, haps on his wrong hole,
And nip each softlingsoftling “a soft little hand” [OED] of a wee white mouse,
Weke, weke, that's crept to keep him company!
Aha, you know your betters! Then, you'll take
Your hand away that's fiddling on my throat,
And please to know me likewise. Who am I?
Why, one, sir, who is lodging with a friend
Three streets off—he's a certain . . . how d'ye call?
Master—a ...Cosimo of the MediciCosimo of the Medici 1389-1464, Florentine politician and patron of the arts, who supported Lippi ,
I' the house that caps the corner. Boh! you were best!
Remember and tell me, the day you're hanged,
How you affected such a gullet's-gripe!
But you, sir, it concerns you that your knaves
Pick up a manner nor discredit you:
Zooks, are we pilchardspilchards small sea fish, that they sweep the streets
And count fair price what comes into their net?
He's Judas to a tittleto a tittle to a T, that man is!
Just such a face! Why, sir, you make amends.
Lord, I'm not angry! Bid your hang-dogshang-dogs despicable people go
Drink out this quarter-florin to the health
Of the munificent House that harbours me
(And many more beside, lads! more beside!)
And all's come square again. I'd like his face—
His, elbowing on his comrade in the door
With the pike and lantern,—for the slave that holds
John Baptist's head a-dangle by the hair
With one hand ("Look you, now," as who should say)
And his weapon in the other, yet unwiped!John Baptist’s head a-dangle … unwiped John the Baptist was a New Testament prophet who baptized Jesus; see Matthew 3. The “Beheading of the Baptist” and “Banquet of Herod” are two works by Lippi (both in Prato) on the theme of John the Baptist’s end at Herod’s hands.
It's not your chance to have a bit of chalk,
A wood-coal or the like? or you should see!
Yes, I'm the painter, since you style me so.
What, brother Lippo's doings, up and down,
You know them and they take you? like enough!
I saw the proper twinkle in your eye—
'Tell you, I liked your looks at very first.
Let's sit and set things straight now, hip to haunch.
Here's spring come, and the nights one makes up bands
To roam the town and sing out carnivalcarnival riotous season prior to the austerity of Lent,
And I've been three weeks shut within my mewmew figuratively speaking, a cage,
A-painting for the great man, saints and saints
And saints again. I could not paint all night—
Ouf! I leaned out of window for fresh air.
There came a hurry of feet and little feet,
A sweep of lute strings, laughs, and whiftswhifts bits of a song of song, —
Flower o' the broom,
Take away love, and our earth is a tomb!
Flower o' the quince,
I let Lisa go, and what good in life since?
Flower o' the thyme—and so on. Round they went.
Scarce had they turned the corner when a titter
Like the skipping of rabbits by moonlight,—three slim shapes,
And a face that looked up . . . zooks, sir, flesh and blood,
That's all I'm made of! Into shreds it went,
Curtain and counterpane and coverlet,
All the bed-furniture—a dozen knots,
There was a ladder! Down I let myself,
Hands and feet, scrambling somehow, and so dropped,
And after them. I came up with the fun
Hard by Saint LaurenceSaint Laurence a church in Florence: S. Lorenzo in Vasari. Lippi painted an Annunciation scene here, hail fellow, well met,—
Flower o' the rose,
If I've been merry, what matter who knows?
And so as I was stealing back again
To get to bed and have a bit of sleep
Ere I rise up to-morrow and go work
On Jerome knocking at his poor old breast
With his great round stone to subdue the flesh,Jerome …flesh St. Jerome (c.340-420), a Doctor of the Latin Church, noted for an ascetic life and writings
You snap me of the sudden. Ah, I see!
Though your eye twinkles still, you shake your head—
Mine's shaved—a monk, you say—the sting 's in that!
If Master Cosimo announced himself,
Mum's the word naturally; but a monk!
Come, what am I a beast for? tell us, now!
I was a baby when my mother died
And father died and left me in the street.
I starved there, God knows how, a year or two
On fig-skins, melon-parings, rinds and shucks,
Refuse and rubbish. One fine frosty day,
My stomach being empty as your hat,
The wind doubled me up and down I went.
Old Aunt LapacciaAunt Lapaccia Filippo’s aunt, who cared for him after his father died trussed me with one hand,
(Its fellow was a stinger as I knew)
And so along the wall, over the bridge,
By the straight cut to the convent. Six words there,
While I stood munching my first bread that month:
"So, boy, you're minded," quoth the good fat father
Wiping his own mouth, 'twas refection-time,—
"To quit this very miserable world?
Will you renounce" . . . "the mouthful of bread?" thought I;
By no means! Brief, they made a monk of me;
I did renounce the world, its pride and greed,
Palace, farm, villa, shop, and banking-house,
Trash, such as these poor devils of Medici
Have given their hearts to—all at eight years old.
Well, sir, I found in time, you may be sure,
'Twas not for nothing—the good bellyful,
The warm serge and the rope that goes all round,
And day-long blessed idleness beside!
"Let's see what the urchin's fit for"—that came next.
Not overmuch their way, I must confess.
Such a to-do! They tried me with their books:
Lord, they'd have taught me Latin in pure waste!
Flower o' the clove.
All the Latin I construe is, "amo" I love!
But, mind you, when a boy starves in the streets
Eight years together, as my fortune was,
Watching folk's faces to know who will fling
The bit of half-stripped grape-bunch he desires,
And who will curse or kick him for his pains,—
Which gentleman processional and fine,
Holding a candle to the Sacrament,
Will wink and let him lift a plate and catch
The droppings of the wax to sell again,
Or holla for the Eightthe Eight “the magistrates of Florence” [Ian Jack] and have him whipped,—
How say I?—nay, which dog bites, which lets drop
His bone from the heap of offal in the street,—
Why, soul and sense of him grow sharp alike,
He learns the look of things, and none the less
For admonition from the hunger-pinch.
I had a store of such remarks, be sure,
Which, after I found leisure, turned to use.
I drew men's faces on my copy-books,
Scrawled them within the antiphonary's margeantiphonary’s marge margin of an antiphon (a book of chants used during Mass),
Joined legs and arms to the long music-notes,
Found eyes and nose and chin for A's and B's,
And made a string of pictures of the world
Betwixt the ins and outs of verb and noun,
On the wall, the bench, the door. The monks looked black.
"Nay," quoth the Prior, "turn him out, d'ye say?
In no wise. Lose a crow and catch a lark.
What if at last we get our man of parts,
We CarmelitesCarmelites an order of mendicant friars, founded at Mount Carmel in the 12th Century; also called White Friars, like those CamaldoleseCamaldolese member of the religious order founded in the 11th Century also called Camaldolites
And Preaching FriarsPreaching Friars Dominicans, an order of mendicant friars, founded by St. Dominic in the 13th Century, to do our church up fine
And put the front on it that ought to be!"
And hereupon he bade me daub away.
Thank you! my head being crammed, the walls a blank,
Never was such prompt disemburdeningdisemburdening disburdening.
First, every sort of monk, the black and whitethe black and the white Black Friars are Dominicans; White Friars are Carmelites,
I drew them, fat and lean: then, folk at church,
From good old gossips waiting to confess
Their cribscribs minor thefts of barrel-droppings, candle-ends,—
To the breathless fellow at the altar-foot,
Fresh from his murder, safe and sitting there
With the little children round him in a row
Of admiration, half for his beard and half
For that white anger of his victim's son
Shaking a fist at him with one fierce arm,
Signing himself with the other because of Christ
(Whose sad face on the cross sees only this
After the passion of a thousand years)
Till some poor girl, her apron o'er her head,
(Which the intense eyes looked through) came at eve
On tiptoe, said a word, dropped in a loaf,
Her pair of earrings and a bunch of flowers
(The brute took growling), prayed, and so was gone.
I painted all, then cried "'Tis ask and have;
Choose, for more's ready!"—laid the ladder flat,
And showed my covered bit of cloister-wall.
The monks closed in a circle and praised loud
Till checked, taught what to see and not to see,
Being simple bodies,—"That's the very man!
Look at the boy who stoops to pat the dog!
That woman's like the Prior's niecePrior’s niece euphemism for an intimate of the Prior who comes
To care about his asthma: it's the life!''
But there my triumph's straw-fire flared and funkedfunked went out, smoked;
Their betters took their turn to see and say:
The Prior and the learned pulled a face
And stopped all that in no time. "How? what's here?
Quite from the mark of painting, bless us all!
Faces, arms, legs, and bodies like the true
As much as pea and pea! it's devil's-game!
Your business is not to catch men with show,
With homage to the perishable clay,
But lift them over it, ignore it all,
Make them forget there's such a thing as flesh.
Your business is to paint the souls of men—
Man's soul, and it's a fire, smoke . . . no, it's not . . .
It's vapour done up like a new-born babe—
(In that shape when you die it leaves your mouth)
It's . . . well, what matters talking, it's the soul!
Give us no more of body than shows soul!
Here's GiottoGiotto Florentine painter, Giotto di Bondone (1266/67-1337) [Metropolitan Museum site] (For an example of his work, see here.), with his Saint a-praising God,
That sets us praising—why not stop with him?
Why put all thoughts of praise out of our head
With wonder at lines, colours, and what not?
Paint the soul, never mind the legs and arms!
Rub all out, try at it a second time.
Oh, that white smallish female with the breasts,
She's just my niece . . . HerodiasHerodias Herod’s second wife, see Matthew 14:1-12. Her daughter Salome dances before Herod, who afterwards grants her whatever she will wish. At the suggestion of Herodias, Salome asks for John the Baptist’s head. Lippi’s “Banquet of Herod” (in Prato) shows this scene of the Baptist’s head on a platter., I would say,—
Who went and danced and got men's heads cut off!
Have it all out!" Now, is this sense, I ask?
A fine way to paint soul, by painting body
So ill, the eye can't stop there, must go further
And can't fare worse! Thus, yellow does for white
When what you put for yellow's simply black,
And any sort of meaning looks intense
When all beside itself means and looks nought.
Why can't a painter lift each foot in turn,
Left foot and right foot, go a double step,
Make his flesh liker and his soul more like,
Both in their order? Take the prettiest face,
The Prior's niece . . . patron-saint—is it so pretty
You can't discover if it means hope, fear,
Sorrow or joy? won't beauty go with these?
Suppose I've made her eyes all right and blue,
Can't I take breath and try to add life's flash,
And then add soul and heighten them three-fold?
Or say there's beauty with no soul at all—
(I never saw it—put the case the same—)
If you get simple beauty and nought else,
You get about the best thing God invents:
That's somewhat: and you'll find the soul you have missed,
Within yourself, when you return him thanks.
"Rub all out!" Well, well, there's my life, in short,
And so the thing has gone on ever since.
I'm grown a man no doubt, I've broken bounds:
You should not take a fellow eight years old
And make him swear to never kiss the girls.
I'm my own master, paint now as I please—
Having a friend, you see, in the Corner-house!
Lord, it's fast holding by the rings in front—
Those great rings serve more purposes than just
To plant a flag in, or tie up a horse!
And yet the old schooling sticks, the old grave eyes
Are peeping o'er my shoulder as I work,
The heads shake still—"It's art's decline, my son!
You're not of the true painters, great and old;
Brother Angelico'sBrother Angelico Fra Angelico (1387-1455), Florentine painter, who was also a Dominican. For examples of the work of Fra Angelico, search the Metropolitan Museum website. the man, you'll find;
Brother LorenzoBrother Lorenzo Lorenzo Monaco (Piero di Giovanni), active 1390-1423, Florentine painter who was a Camaldoli monk. For examples of the work of Fra Lorenzo, search the Metropolitan Museum website. stands his single peer:
Fag onfag on labor at at flesh, you'll never make the third!"
Flower o' the pine,
You keep your mistr ... manners, and I'll stick to mine!
I'm not the third, then: bless us, they must know!
Don't you think they're the likeliest to know,
They with their Latin? So, I swallow my rage,
Clench my teeth, suck my lips in tight, and paint
To please them—sometimes do and sometimes don't;
For, doing most, there's pretty sure to come
A turn, some warm eve finds me at my saints—
A laugh, a cry, the business of the world—
(Flower o' the peach
Death for us all, and his own life for each!)
And my whole soul revolves, the cup runs overcup runs over Compare to Psalms 23:5 : “my cup runneth over.”,
The world and life's too big to pass for a dream,
And I do these wild things in sheer despite,
And play the fooleries you catch me at,
In pure rage! The old mill-horse, out at grass
After hard years, throws up his stiff heels so,
Although the miller does not preach to him
The only good of grass is to make chaff.
What would men have? Do they like grass or no—
May they or mayn't they? all I want's the thing
Settled for ever one way. As it is,
You tell too many lies and hurt yourself:
You don't like what you only like too much,
You do like what, if given you at your word,
You find abundantly detestable.
For me, I think I speak as I was taught;
I always see the garden and God there
A-making man's wifeI always see the garden and God there … wife See Genesis 2:18-23.: and, my lesson learned,
The value and significance of flesh,
I can't unlearn ten minutes afterwards.
You understand me: I'm a beast, I know.
But see, now—why, I see as certainly
As that the morning-star's about to shine,
What will hap some day. We've a youngster here
Comes to our convent, studies what I do,
Slouches and stares and lets no atom drop:
His name is Guidi—he'll not mind the monks—
They call him Hulking TomGuidi; Hulking Tom Tommaso Guidi, painter better known as Masaccio (1401-28), that is “Careless Tom, or Hulking Tom (not necessarily in disapproval)” (Vasari, 1.318)., he lets them talk—
He picks my practice up—he'll paint apace.
I hope so—though I never live so long,
I know what's sure to follow. You be judge!
You speak no Latin more than I, belike;
However, you're my man, you've seen the world
—The beauty and the wonder and the power,
The shapes of things, their colours, lights and shades,
Changes, surprises,—and God made it all!
—For what? Do you feel thankful, ay or no,
For this fair town's face, yonder river's line,
The mountain round it and the sky above,
Much more the figures of man, woman, child,
These are the frame to? What's it all about?
To be passed over, despised? or dwelt upon,
Wondered at? oh, this last of course!—you say.
But why not do as well as say,—paint these
Just as they are, careless what comes of it?
God's works—paint any one, and count it crime
To let a truth slip. Don't object, "His works
Are here already; nature is complete:
Suppose you reproduce her—(which you can't)
There's no advantage! you must beat her, then."
For, don't you mark? we're made so that we love
First when we see them painted, things we have passed
Perhaps a hundred times nor cared to see;
And so they are better, painted—better to us,
Which is the same thing. Art was given for that;
God uses us to help each other so,
Lending our minds out. Have you noticed, now,
Your cullion'scullion term of contempt: a rascal hanging face? A bit of chalk,
And trust me but you should, though! How much more,
If I drew higher things with the same truth!
That were to take the Prior's pulpit-place,
Interpret God to all of you! Oh, oh,
It makes me mad to see what men shall do
And we in our graves! This world's no blot for us,
Nor blank; it means intensely, and means good:
To find its meaning is my meat and drink.
"Ay, but you don't so instigate to prayer!"
Strikes in the Prior: "when your meaning's plain
It does not say to folk—remember matinsmatins a set time for morning prayers,
Or, mind you fast next Friday!" Why, for this
What need of art at all? A skull and bones,
Two bits of stick nailed crosswise, or, what's best,
A bell to chime the hour with, does as well.
I painted a Saint Laurence six months since
At PratoPrato the cathedral in Florence; Lippo made frescoes there from 1452-66, splashed the fresco in fine style:
"How looks my painting, now the scaffold's down?"
I ask a brother: "Hugely," he returns—
"Already not one phizphiz face, physiognomy of your three slaves
Who turn the Deacon off his toasted sideDeacon . . . toasted side St. Laurence (d. 258), who was a deacon and martyr; he was roasted to death,
But's scratched and prodded to our heart's content,
The pious people have so eased their own
With coming to say prayers there in a rage:
We get on fast to see the bricks beneath.
Expect another job this time next year,
For pity and religion grow i' the crowd—
Your painting serves its purpose!" Hang the fools!
—That is—you'll not mistake an idle word
Spoke in a huff by a poor monk, God wotGod wot God knows,
Tasting the air this spicy night which turns
The unaccustomed head like Chianti wine!
Oh, the church knows! don't misreport me, now!
It's natural a poor monk out of bounds
Should have his apt word to excuse himself:
And hearken how I plot to make amends.
I have bethought me: I shall paint a piece
... There's for you! Give me six months, then go, see
Something in Sant' Ambrogio'sSant’ Ambrogio’s Vasari: “There [Florence] he wrought a very beautiful panel for the high-altar of the Nuns of S. Ambrogio, which made him very dear to Cosimo de’ Medici, who became very much his friend for this reason.” [Giorgio Vasari Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects, trans. Gaston du C. de Vere, New York: Alfred A. Knopf (Everyman’s Library), 1:437]! Bless the nuns!
They want a cast o' my office. I shall paint
God in the midst, Madonna and her babe,
Ringed by a bowery, flowery angel-brood,
Lilies and vestments and white faces, sweet
As puff on puff of grated orris-rootorris-root an iris, used in powdered form in perfumes and medicine
When ladies crowd to Church at midsummer.
And then i' the front, of course a saint or two—
Saint John' because he saves the FlorentinesSaint John … Florentines John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus; see Matthew 3. Also see earlier note.,
Saint Ambrose, who puts down in black and white
The convent's friends and gives them a long daySaint Ambrose … day Either Saint Ambrose (c. 339-97) a Doctor of the Latin Church, who was the bishop of Milan, or Saint Ambrose of Camaldoli, also known as Fra Ambrogio (c. 1386-1439), who was in the Camaldolensian Order in Florence.,
And Job, I must have him there past mistake,
The man of UzJob; man of Uz Job main character of The Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible, focusing on Job’s suffering, and by extension, human suffering. Job 1.1 begins “There was once a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job.” (and Us without the z,
Painters who need his patience). Well, all these
Secured at their devotion, up shall come
Out of a corner when you least expect,
As one by a dark stair into a great light,
Music and talking, who but Lippo! I!—
MazedMazed stupefied, motionless, and moonstruck—I'm the man!
Back I shrink—what is this I see and hear?
I, caught up with my monk's-things by mistake,
My old serge gown and rope that goes all round,
I, in this presence, this pure company!
Where's a hole, where's a corner for escape?
Then steps a sweet angelic slip of a thing
Forward, puts out a soft palm—"Not so fast!"
—Addresses the celestial presence, "nay—
He made you and devised you, after all,
Though he's none of you! Could Saint John there draw—
His camel-hair make up a painting brush?
We come to brother Lippo for all that,
Iste perfecit opus!Iste perfecit opus From the Latin, “ ‘This man made the work.’ In this painting, as later completed, these words appear beside a figure which Browning took to be Lippi’s self-portrait.” [Norton The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Major Authors Edition. Ed. M. H. Abrams et al., 1962] So, all smile—
I shuffle sideways with my blushing face
Under the cover of a hundred wings
Thrown like a spread of kirtleskirtles a man’s tunic or a woman’s gown when you're gay
And play hot cocklesplay hot cockles a euphemism, based on the name of a children’s game, for having sex, all the doors being shut,
Till, wholly unexpected, in there pops
The hothead husband! Thus I scuttle off
To some safe bench behind, not letting go
The palm of her, the little lily thing
That spoke the good word for me in the nick,
Like the Prior's niece . . . Saint LucySaint Lucy a virgin and martyr who died in Syracuse, Sicily, in the early 4th Century; she is a patron saint for those with eye diseases, I would say.
And so all's saved for me, and for the church
A pretty picture gained. Go, six months hence!
Your hand, sir, and good-bye: no lights, no lights!
1. “Fra Lippo Lippi” is a dramatic monologue, a poem in which the speaker assumes someone else’s voice, and delivers a speech explaining his or her motives, actions, or feelings. Choose an historical figure or fictional character, and write your own dramatic monologue in his or her voice. For other examples of the form, see:
2. Browning’s monologue might also be considered an ekphrastic poem, a poem inspired by or describing art. Visit a museum or art gallery, and choose a painting, sculpture, or video installation to study. Then write your own ekphrastic poem, assuming the voice of the artist who made it. For some examples of poems about paintings, see:
1. Browning based the speaker of this poem on a real-life Florentine painter, Filippo Lippi. What sort of painting does Fra Lippo Lippi want to make? What sort of painting is he required to make? How does Fra Lippo Lippi reconcile his religious beliefs, the demands of his patrons, and his own beliefs about art?
2. What does the poem reveal about the moral character of the speaker? Which details, phrases, or words best demonstrate that character? How does Browning represent Fra Lippo Lippi’s speech, and how does that representation inform your reading of the poem?
3. What variations can you detect in the poem’s meter? Where—and why—might Browning vary the meter and the poem’s pacing? For example, compare and contrast the differences in these two passages:
This world’s no blot for us,
Nor blank; It means intensely, and means good:
To find its meaning is my meat and drink. (lines 313-315)
Like the skipping of rabbits by moonlight—three slim shapes. (line 59)
4. How might Browning’s argument for the realistic style of Renaissance art, and representative art in general—“we’re made so that we love / First when we see them painted, things we have passed / Perhaps a hundred times nor cared to see”—relate to his feelings about his own poems?
1. Prior to listening to and discussing the poem, have students think-pair-share a time when art (a picture, movie, song, poem, et cetera) was useful in some way in their lives (cheering them up, helping them express something to someone else, or understanding or appreciating something in a new way.) In a large group debrief, have students generate ideas about the purposes of art.
2. Introduce the poem by providing a 1-2 sentence biography of the Renaissance artist, a summary of an antecedent scenario (the action that occurred just before the speaker’s utterance), and the action of the poem. Distribute the text and play Paul Giamatti’s recitation of “Fra Lippo Lippi.” Have students mark the text as they listen, a question mark for any word, image, or line they have questions about, a heart for parts they like, and an exclamation point for parts of the poem that ring true. Finally, have students generate questions to begin discussing the poem.
3. After exploring initial student responses to the poem, ask how the form and content of Browning’s poem confirms, illustrates, or challenges particular theories about art: its purposes, aesthetic values, affects on the audience, and so on.
4. Have students explore the painting “Portrait of a Man and Woman in Casement” by Fra Lippo Lippi and listen to W.S. Di Piero’s discussion of the piece. Incorporating text from the poem, ask students to write a paragraph about how the speaker’s theories about the purposes of art are represented in this piece by paying particular attention to the woman’s dress and the way in which the man looks at her.
5. After using all the visual, audio, and reading resources in the Learning Lab to help students develop an understanding of Browning’s poem, provide time for students to represent (visually and orally) some of the major themes in this dramatic monologue through a group performance, using individual, dual, and choral voices.
Although the early part of Robert Browning’s creative life was spent in comparative obscurity, he has come to be regarded as one of the most important poets of the Victorian period. His dramatic monologues and the psycho-historical epic The Ring and the Book (1868-1869), a...